By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed crucial Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic method, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of diverse from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal potential and the services which were grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses touching on varieties and services. The grammar is written in a method available to linguists operating inside of diverse theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised via a wealthy consonantal approach, a 3 vowel procedure, and a tone method. The language has plentiful vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord procedure. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles let the parsing of the clause into components. The language has 3 kinds of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The adverse paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and huge process of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family members in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can persist with quite a few materials. The grammatical position of that argument is coded by way of inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family further to verbs are varied for various sessions of verbs.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Wandala
In citation forms, in clause-final position, or before pauses in sentence-internal position. A cluster of consonants may emerge across word boundaries, when the word-final vowel is deleted and the next word begins with a consonant. If the resulting cluster is disallowed, an epenthetic vowel is inserted. There are no word-initial geminate consonants in phonetic structures. The underlying geminate consonants are preceded by an epenthetic vowel in phonetic realizations. Thus, the noun úkkùlà ‘chicken’ most probably has an initial geminated k.
27) ìr-ɬyà head-calm ‘grave’ The sequence bd has been recorded in word-medial position only in the proper name nábdə̀, a borrowing of Arabic Abdul, most probably via Fula. The underlying cluster mn is reduced to m by the rule n → Ø /m___: 38 Phonology (28) yòo, kínŋánà ám jínà yòo, kín ŋánà á-m njí nà well now DEF PRED-IN sitting DEM ‘Well, while sitting here . ’ The labial nasal is deleted after the alveolar nasal by the rule m → Ø /n___. Consider the verb mbà ‘learn to do something’ (ɓà in Mirt 1971: 5).
The imperative of the verb ùkpáɗá is formed through the reduplication of the kp: ùkpùkpáɗà ‘crunch (peanuts, cola nuts)’. The labial velar kp is a heavy segment, as it requires vowel epenthesis before or after kp in word-initial and in word-medial positions, and does not allow vowel epenthesis between its velar and labial components. Glottal continuant h he ‘punctual marker’, hè interrogative marker, háŋnè ‘pale red’, hàrè ‘night, 24-hour period’. The glottal continuant is realized as a velar continuant [x] before high-central vowels and before round vowels, xə̀ɗà ‘hide’, xùɗè ‘belly’, xə̀ɗórà ‘funeral’, [ə̀xóngyàdà] ‘clean a cavity’.
A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier