By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz
Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in genuine existence, frequently calls for the knowledge of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. in response to decades of training adventure, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a robust instrument to satisfy such demanding situations. they supply an easy consultant to the basics and purposes of acid-base diagrams, warding off complicated arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It deals studying positive aspects equivalent to boxed effects and a suite of formulae.
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Additional resources for Acid-Base Diagrams
The line of H3 B for pH > pKa3 is situated outside the range of the diagram. Example: log C H3 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 5 and pKa3 ¼ 12 Fig. 23 Plotting the lines of H2 BÀ in the ranges pH < pKa1, pKa1 < pH < pKa2, pKa2 < pH < pKa3 and pH > pKa3 . Example: log C H3 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 5 and pKa3 ¼ 12 28 3 Constructing pH-logci Diagrams Fig. 24 Plotting the lines of HB2À in the ranges pH < pKa1, pKa1 < pH < pKa2, pKa2 < pH < pKa3 and pH > pKa3 . Example: log C H3 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 5 and pKa3 ¼ 12 Fig.
The line ofH2 BÀ has the slope À2 in the rangepH > pKa3 (whereB3À is dominating). The line of HB2À has the slope +2 in the range pH < pKa1 (where H3 B is dominating). The line of B3À has the slope +3 for pH < pKa1 (H3 B is dominating). In the given example, this line is situated outside the range of the diagram. In the range pKa1 < pH < pKa2 the slope is +2 (H2 BÀ is dominating). 26 3 Constructing pH-logci Diagrams Fig. 20 Plotting the coordination system with the H3 Oþ and OHÀ lines of water Fig.
71) can be used. 3 Weak Acids and Their Corresponding Strong Bases NHþ 4 /NH3 is a good example for a weak acid with a corresponding strong base. At first, an ammonium chloride solution is considered. In Sect. , the concentration of HCl is negligible in this range. 25) will affect the pH. 1 Weak Acids in High Concentration Figure 41 depicts the pH-logci diagram of an ammonium chloride solution at À1 mol LÀ1. C HB ¼ 10 The charge balance cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ þ cBÀ (49) shows that the pH is somewhat left of the pH-coordinate of P1 in Fig.
Acid-Base Diagrams by Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz