By Richard L. Bechtold
The time period "alternative gasoline" has been used to explain any gasoline steered to be used in transportation autos except gas or diesel gas. This ebook covers quite a lot of fuels, together with alcohols, gases, and vegetable oils. The publication offers the basics had to comprehend the actual and chemical houses of different fuels, and the way they influence refueling process layout and amendment of latest garages for security. As such, it's a mixture of reference and basic consultant for engineers and fleet managers whose activity is to enforce substitute gas autos.
desk of Contents
1. replacement Fuels and Their Origins
2. homes and standards
three. fabrics Compatibility
four. garage and meting out
five. Refueling Facility deploy and storage Facility alterations
6. word list of phrases
in regards to the writer
Read Online or Download Alternative Fuels Guidebook - Properties, Storage, Dispensing, and Vehicle Facility Modifications PDF
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels Guidebook - Properties, Storage, Dispensing, and Vehicle Facility Modifications
However, it is not always possible to obtain the same power output without creating a more expensive engine. Natural gas light-duty vehicles should have the same good driveability characteristics that gasoline vehicles have obtained and customers expect. Heavy-Duty Vehides Since heavy-duty natural gas engines are derivatives of heavy-duty diesel engines, it is possible for them to have the same or more power than the equivalent displacement diesel version. Limiting factors to power output include oxides of nitrogen emissions (increased power means richer operation and generation of more oxides of nitrogen for a given displacement engine) and exhaust valve life 23 Alternative Fuels Guidebook (spark-ignition engines experience higher exhaust valve temperatures than diesel engines).
The term "true vapor pressure" is often used to distinguish between vapor pressure and Reid vapor pressure. The Reid vapor pressure test involves saturating the fuel with water before testing and cannot be used for gasoline-alcohol blends or neat alcohol fuels; a new procedure has been developed which does not use water and is called Dry Vapor Pressure Equivalent, or DVPE (see ASTM D 4814-95c under Additional Information section). 3]. Water Solubility-Maximum concentration of a substance that will dissolve in water.
This means that more methanol vapor must be created before a flammable mixture is possible. 3%). Methanol vapor and air mixtures remain flammable until the methanol vapor increases beyond 36%. Thus, if vapor is generated at similar rates, gasoline achieves flammability sooner but quickly passes beyond the rich limit. Methanol, on the other hand, achieves flammability much later and stays in the flammable range much longer. 7). For the same amount of energy production, about twice as much methanol is needed than gasoline, but about the same amount of air is consumed.
Alternative Fuels Guidebook - Properties, Storage, Dispensing, and Vehicle Facility Modifications by Richard L. Bechtold