By N. E. Collinge

ISBN-10: 0415020646

ISBN-13: 9780415020640

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its examine and its history
* finished indexes of themes and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of knowledge on all features of language is a needs to for all libraries in larger schooling, faculties and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has an exceptional bibliography. additionally, there are finished indexes of themes and technical phrases and names. hugely urged for all collage and basic public libraries.' - Choice
`This very important publication is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and ways to, language, with beneficiant references to extra distinct assets. every one bankruptcy has an outstanding bibliography.' - Language International
`A complete advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is usually recommended to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful relief ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a good activity ... there are almost no components of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's reliable signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, occasions greater schooling complement

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Extra info for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

Sample text

The second part would say something like: (c) (ii) The [ff voiced] feature of /r/ becomes [fl voiced] after a sound which is [−sonorant], [−continuant] and [−voiced]: informally, ‘voiced /r/ (whether approximant or fricative) becomes voiceless after /p/, /t/ or /k/’. As well as making it possible to refer to classes of phonemes, distinctive features can make explicit another frequentlyoccurring property of allophonic rules. In both (c)(i) and (c)(ii) above, the value of one feature of the segment concerned is altered to agree with the value of that same feature in the preceding segment: in (c)(i) the feature concerned is [sonorant] and its value changes from+to−, while in (c)(ii) it is [voiced] and its value again changes from+to−.

Thus in this case the vowel change is not an alternation in the sense we are dealing with here. The /s/~/z/ alternation recurs in the pronunciation of the possessive ending (cat’s/kæts/ v. dog’s/dɒgz/), in the third person singular ending in the present of verbs (looks/lʊks/ v. sees/si:z/), and in the contracted forms of is and has (it’s arrived /ɪts/ v. he’s arrived /hi:z/). Analogous to the /s/~/z/ alternation is the /t/~/d/ alternation shown by regular past tenses and past participles in English: /t/ after a voiceless sound, as in stopped /stɒpt/, but /d/ after a voiced sound, as in stayed /steɪd/ and waited /weɪtɪd/.

Continuant]: Air flow through oral cavity not blocked. 5). [+strident]: High level of noise (‘sibilance’). Minus values of a feature mean the absence of the property. g. the ‘voiceless fricatives’ /f θ s ʃ/ are the class of English sounds which in feature terms are both [−voiced] and [+continuant]; the ‘coronal sonorants’ /l n r/ are the class which are both [+sonorant] and [+coronal]; the ‘alveolar plosives’ /t d/ are the class which are [−sonorant], [+coronal], [−anterior] and [−continuant]; in the framework we have set up here, the ‘labials’ /p b f v w m/ are in fact the set of sounds which are both [−coronal] and [+anterior].

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An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

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