By Gideon Freudenthal
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1. difficulties and techniques of Analysis.- 2. technology and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s idea of area and the distance idea of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and procedure in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the idea of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute house; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. facts of the lifestyles of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. facts of the lifestyles of Empty Space.- five. the basic houses of a Particle in Empty area; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislation of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s primary Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ blunders and the boundaries of the belief of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislations of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of influence, Elasticity, and the concept that of a fabric Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the inspiration of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s notion of Gravity and house because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and approach in glossy Philosophy.- IV. the idea that of aspect in seventeenth Century usual Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the concept that of point within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the concept that of aspect in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among usual and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social background of the Bourgeois inspiration of the Individual.- VIII. England ahead of the Revolution.- 1. city, kingdom, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. useful and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and kingdom kingdom within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s idea of the kingdom as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the debate with Feudal concept and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. replacement Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of autonomous vendors: Adam Smith.- 2. the straightforward Commodity construction of self sustaining inner most owners: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an mixture of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as picking out the houses of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the basic houses of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and task as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; lively and Passive Principle.- five. The method of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the kingdom and on the earth System.- 6. method of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and method within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- record of Abbreviations.- identify Index.
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Additional info for Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88)
Equal volumes of different materials provide resistance of different magnitudes and thus have different quantities of mass. ) contained in equal volumes (in heavy bodies it is called specific gravity). 18 For every body the density of matter results from its mass - or experimentally more simple: its weight - divided by its volume: density = m/V. 'Density' is a physical measure and denotes a relation of quantities. The units of measurement are arbitrary. Since a constant magnitude or quantity is determined by comparison with the standard of measure, which must be empirically given, an object which is as far as possible unchanging must be chosen as a standard of measurement.
Since a constant magnitude or quantity is determined by comparison with the standard of measure, which must be empirically given, an object which is as far as possible unchanging must be chosen as a standard of measurement. 19 Since 'density' is a concept denoting a relation of two empirical magnitudes, any definition of the concept which contains non-empirical magnitudes is improper. One such definition is Newton's implicit definition of density, upon which his definition of the 'quantity of matter' is based.
7 3. , 575; Cajori, 414). Density can be determined empirically only as the relation of the masses of two bodies of equal volume. PI =Pz ifmt/mz = Vt/Vz . The measure of density is: P = mjV. A measure of density would then be the mass of the unit of volume of a particular kind of matter. , the unit of measurement). Newton expresses this by speaking of the "same density" and thus assuming that two masses are being compared. From the relation of the masses of the two bodies of equal volume Newton could conclude that a vacuum exists only, because he had presupposed that all particles are of equal volume and equal mass.
Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88) by Gideon Freudenthal