By Saeed Yousef

ISBN-10: 0415616522

ISBN-13: 9780415616522

Basic Persian: A Grammar and Workbook contains an obtainable reference grammar and comparable routines in one volume.

This e-book provides twenty grammar devices, masking the middle fabric which scholars may count on to come across of their first 12 months of studying Persian. Grammar issues are by way of a number of examples and routines which enable scholars to augment and consolidate their studying.

Key gains include:

  • Clear, obtainable layout
  • Many precious language examples
  • Jargon-free causes of grammar
  • Abundant routines with complete resolution key
  • A thesaurus of Persian-English phrases
  • Subject index

Rigorous but attractive, Basic Persian is acceptable for either type use and self sufficient research, making it a fantastic grammar reference and practiceresource for newcomers and scholars with a few wisdom of the language.

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Extra info for Basic Persian: A Grammar and Workbook

Sample text

G. g. g. g. priceless, stormless, remorseless. The difficulty of attaching precise meanings and the problem of semantic closeness but not semantic identity, is illustrated when opposites (antonyms) are sought. For example, hopeful is not an opposite of hopeless, and opposites for priceless such as worthless may involve the same affix but a completely different root-word. The general point to be made here is that the meanings contained and conferred by morphemes are not as easily specifiable as may at first appear.

Taxi! And it is only by stretching the imagination that the word shoot could be reduced further to, say, Sh. . , where it would, anyway, be dependent on the other word for its sense. By this definition, then, a word has the kind of stability which does not allow of further reduction in form. It is stable and free enough to stand on its own. It cannot be subdivided. We should note here, though, that a number of words do not pass this minimal free form test. Although we can imagine grammar lessons in which words like my or because appeared independently, it is unlikely that such items could occur on their 3 own without being contextually attached to other words.

In fact, the distinction drawn above between lexemes and word-forms enables an important theoretical point to be made concerning grammatical and lexical ‘words’: there is a regular co-occurrence between a grammatical word and its lexeme; but lexical words take on many different forms. For example, different lexical word-forms ‘sing’, ‘sang’, ‘sings’, ‘singing’, ‘sung’, are realized by a single lexeme SING. But a grammatical word will normally have a single word-form realized by a lexeme. Thus, the lexemes BY and OF have ‘by’ and ‘of ’ as their word-forms.

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Basic Persian: A Grammar and Workbook by Saeed Yousef


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