By BIOTOL, B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras
Demonstrates how organic catalysis will be utilized to the construction of worth further chemical substances. Use is made up of a various diversity of case stories to provide a breadth of expertise. It additionally finds how bio-systems are being hired to provide a variety of worthwhile commodities together with antibiotics and different therapeutics, middleman metabolites comparable to citrate, malate, gels and different worthwhile polymers.
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Additional resources for Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis
This, in turn, has generated a demand for economical methods for the synthesis of pure enantiomers (Sheldon, 1993a). e. involve catalytic methodologies. This is reflected in the increasing attention being focused on enantioselective catalysis, using either enzymes o1 chiral metal complexes. An elegant example of a highly efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis is the Takasago process (Akutagawa, 1992; Kumobayashi, 1996) for the manufacture of l-menthol, an important product in the flavours and fragrances industry.
Hydrogenations are generally performed in the liquid phase, under relatively mild conditions of temperature and pressure (1 - 40 bar). Most processes are performed batch-wise using powder catalysts in stirred tank or loop-type reactors with sizes up to 10 m 3. Catalytic hydrogenations are generally highly selective with almost quantitative yield (Rylander, 1979; Augustine, 1976). As the metals are recovered from spent catalysts, essentially no non-combustible waste is generated. The trend in fine chemicals and specialties is towards increasingly complex molecules, which translates into a need for hydrogenation catalysts that display a high degree of chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity.
23. Zeolite-catalysed versus classical Friedel-Crafts acylation. g. zeolite beta catalyses the synthesis of coumarins via the Pechmann condensation. For example, condensation of resorcinol with ethyl acetoacetate over zeolite beta in refluxing toluene gave methylumbelliferone, a perfumery ingredient, in 70-80% yield (Fig. , 1996). Acid-catalysed rearrangement of epoxides is another widely used reaction in the fine chemicals industry. Here again the use of solid acid catalysts such as zeolites is proving advantageous.
Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis by BIOTOL, B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras