By Charles A. Truxillo

ISBN-10: 0313316767

ISBN-13: 9780313316760

A concise review of Spanish the US through the colonial period (1492-1825), this learn makes an attempt a synthesis of Iberian and Latin American historic narratives in the context of worldwide heritage. Spanish civilization used to be transferred to the Americas as Spain imposed its medieval Catholic tradition upon the Americas, effectively exchanging the elite cultures of the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas. Iberian tradition turned indigenous when it comes to cross-culturalization, and Creole elites discovered independence inevitable as soon as their lifestyle grew to become outlined by way of American situations.

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Extra resources for By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the Catholic World Monarchy in Spain and the New World, 1492-1825 (Contributions to the Study of World History)

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The Marinids were a Berber tribal formation like the Almoravids and the Almohads; however, their victory at Ecija did not lead to the restoration of Spanish Islam. The Castilians were wary after their defeat and did not seek an immediate solution to the problem of Granada. Moreover, the task of integrating Andalusia with Castile consumed much of that kingdom's resources for the better part of two centuries (Reilly 1993). Alfonso X (1252-1284) was king of Castile when Prince Ferdinand, his eldest son, was killed at Ecija; this monarch's reign was one of the most brilliant and complex in Spanish history.

They also enshrined the nobiliary ideal in their legal codes, which promoted the idea of ascribed legal rights—incumbent upon one's caste status. In medieval times, these ascribed rights were called Fueros; they were informed by the very ancient Indo-European tradition of dividing society into three social castes: ruling-warriors, advisoral priesthoods, and serving-laborers. The Visigothic language also supplied Spanish dialects with many terms for weapons and armor, as was appropriate to a military aristocracy.

Their forces initially contained Crusader expansion, then pushed the Europeans out of Palestine as a result of Saladin's victory at Hattin Horns in 1187. Crusades continued for another century but failed to recapture a substantial portion of the Holy Land. In desperation, the Pope in Rome sought an alliance with the pagan Mongols, who were marching victoriously through Islamic Iran. And though the Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258, killing the Abbasid caliph, they were unable to link up with the Crusaders after the Mamluks (slave-warriors) defeated them in 1260 at Ayn Jalut.

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By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the Catholic World Monarchy in Spain and the New World, 1492-1825 (Contributions to the Study of World History) by Charles A. Truxillo


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