By Ludwig M. G. Heilmeyer Jr. (auth.), Ludwig M. G. Heilmeyer Jr. (eds.)
In eukaryotes many very important mobile capabilities like metabolism, motility, secretion, progress, differentiation are finally regulated via protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Extracellular signs which set off thesechanges regulate protein kinases and protein phosphatases. it's the objective of this quantity to unveil sign networks which attach extracellular signs through moment messengers with chages of the phosphorylation country of goal proteins.
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Extra resources for Cellular Regulation by Protein Phosphorylation
Capillary electrophoresis of this derivative allows detection at 261 nm in the low picimolar range. Fig. 3 shows the capillary electrophoresis chromatogram using 1 nmol of the phosphothreoninecontaining peptide RRREEET(P)EEEAA for partial hydrolysis. Non-radioactive sequence analysis of phosphothreonine-containing peptides is possible under distinct cirumstances as shown earlier (Oedner et al. 1988)' however, a general method is not yet developed. a:: J: lI J: I- 0-. x I o 20 time (min) Fig. 3: Phosphothreonine determination by capillary electrophoresis.
Thus, besides Ca2+ oscillations, the latter example provides a different illustration of the role of protein phosphorylation in the frequency encoding of signals in intercellular communication. 08), launched by the Science Policy Programming Services of the Prime Minister's Office (SPPS). , Galione A (1988) Cytosolic calcium oscillators. FASEB J 2:3074-3082 Berridge MJ, Cobbold PH, Cuthbertson KSR (1988) Spatial and temporal aspects of cell signalling. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 320:325-343 Cardenas ML, Cornish-Bowden A (1989) Characteristics necessary for an interconvertible enzyme cascade to generate a highly sensitive response to an effector.
4) The power of images or beautiful wrong structures. The paper by George and George (1988) illustrates how the discrepancy be- tween X-ray spectroscopy (EXAFS) and X-ray crystallography re- sults led to a revision of the crystal structure of Ferredoxin. , 1990). Note that some of these revisions are quite drastic and in the case of Ferredoxin involve regions of high electron density in the molecule (Fe-S cluster) that are expected to be defined with higher precision. Accuracy is, of course, something else!
Cellular Regulation by Protein Phosphorylation by Ludwig M. G. Heilmeyer Jr. (auth.), Ludwig M. G. Heilmeyer Jr. (eds.)