By Katharina Hartmann, Tonjes Veenstra
The phenomenon of clefts is past doubt a golden oldie. It has captivated linguists of other disciplines for many years. The fascination arises from the original syntax of clefts in interplay with their pragmatic and semantic interpretation. Clefts constitution sentences in response to the knowledge country of the elements contained in them. they're exact as they express a slightly unusual syntactic shape to accomplish the separation of the favorite half, both focal or topical, from the historical past of the clause. regardless of the enduring curiosity in clefts, linguists haven't but come to an contract on many simple questions. The articles contained during this quantity tackle those matters from new theoretical and empirical views. in keeping with info from approximately 50 languages from world wide, this quantity provides new arguments for the correct derivation of clefts, and contributes to the continuing debate at the information-structural effect of cleft constructions. Theoretically, it combines glossy syntactic theorizing with investigations on the interface among grammar and information-structure.
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The it of (28b), by contrast, patterns with the inverted predicate of inverse specificational copular sentences of the type in (27b). So it in (28b) is the predicate of the value Brian, its subject, just as his best friend in (28b) is the predicate of Brian. The discussion of the word-order, control and copula distribution facts leads us to the partial derivation in (29) for specificational it-clefts. This derivation parallels the ones in (12), for inverse specificational copular sentences, and (13), for specificational pseudoclefts with a word order in which the wh-clause precedes be, which in turn precedes the value.
6. Chomsky, Noam. 1977. On Wh-movement. In Formal Syntax, Peter Culicover, Tom Wasow & Adrian Akmajian (eds), 71–132. New York NY: Academic Press. Collins, Peter. 1991. Cleft and Pseudo-Cleft Constructions in English. London: Routledge. Declerck, Renaat. 1988. Studies on Copular Sentences, Clefts, and Pseudo-Clefts. Leuven & Dordrecht: Leuven University Press & Foris. Delahunty, Gerald Patrick. 1982. Topics on the Syntax and Semantics of Cleft Sentences. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Kiss, Katalin. 1998. Identificational focus versus information focus. Language 74: 245–273. É. Kiss, Katalin. 1999. The English cleft construction as a focus phrase. ), 217–229. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Emonds, Joseph. 1976. A Transformational Approach to English Syntax. New York NY: Academic Press. Erguvanlı, Eser Emine. 1984. The Function of Word Order in Turkish Grammar. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Givón, T. 1990. Syntax. A Functional-Typological Introduction, Vol. II. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cleft Structures by Katharina Hartmann, Tonjes Veenstra