By Brian MacWhinney
This quantity examines the conflicting components that form the content material and type of grammatical ideas in language utilization. audio system and addressees have to take care of those principles while expressing themselves and whilst attempting to understand messages. for instance, there are on-going competitions among the speaker's pursuits and the addressee's wishes, or among constraints imposed by way of grammar and people imposed by means of on-line processing. those competitions effect a large choice of platforms, together with case marking, contract and note order, politeness kinds, lexical offerings, and the placement of relative clauses.
Chapters within the ebook examine grammar and utilization in grownup language in addition to first and moment language acquisition, and the motivations that force ancient swap. a number of of the chapters search motives for the competitions concerned, according to past money owed together with the contest version, typical Morphology, the functional-typological culture, and Optimality conception. The e-book should be of curiosity to linguists from a wide selection of backgrounds, relatively these drawn to psycholinguistics, ancient linguistics, philosophy of language, and language acquisition, from complicated undergraduate point upwards.
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Additional resources for Competing Motivations in Grammar and Usage
Wa and ipe=an. sbj In some other languages featuring a secundative construction, both R and T can be deleted. This is the case in Ojibwe: (21) Ojibwe (Rhodes 2010: 643) (a) ditransitive N-gii=miiN-aa. ’ (b) notional ditransitive with antipassive of both objects N-gii= mii-gwe. ’ Still another outcome of alignment conflicts can be blocking: in some languages with a secundative ditransitive construction, an antipassive cannot be derived from ditransitives. This is the case in Tzotzil (Aissen 1987: 292), and, with a few exceptions, in Halkomelem (Gerdts 2010).
In the present article I follow this latter thread, trying to show how both expected patterns as well as counterexamples can be accounted for within a competing motivations approach. 3 Accounting for alignment patterns: a competing motivations approach In the present chapter I apply a competing motivations approach as developed in the 1980s by Du Bois (1985), Haiman (1985b), and Croft (1990), among others, to the domain of alignment conflicts (cf. also the conceptually similar approach in psycholinguistics known as the Competition Model; Bates and MacWhinney 1987).
2). Again as in the case of monotransitive alignment, certain alignment preferences have been noted with respect to dependent marking (case/preposition marking or ‘flagging’, in terms of Haspelmath) and head marking (agreement, or ‘indexing’ in terms of Haspelmath). 2 Basic types of ditransitive alignment: indirective, secundative, and neutral (2004), working with different samples, showed that flagging exhibits an indirective Bias, while indexing has a secundative Bias. As in the case of monotransitive alignment, we can further inquire whether other syntactic constructions show alignment preferences.
Competing Motivations in Grammar and Usage by Brian MacWhinney