By John H. Connolly

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English is not a good source of examples for this type of phenomenon. However, Gil (1982:132) suggests that English pronominal morphology is to some extent sensitive to purely positional factors. 16. For a summary of the Welsh mutations, see Rhys Jones (1977:326-41). These mutations give rise to inflectional alternants inasmuch as the latter are restricted in their grammatical distribution to a greater extent than would be expected on grounds of their part-of-speech (sub)classification alone. 17.

In Hungarian, however, according to de Groot (1980), there are four: 38 Constituent Order in Functional Grammar (80) P2, PI PO V X, P3 PI is for the topic and PO for the element bearing focus, which normally occupies immediate preverbal position in the clause-proper. ) A further means of comparison based essentially on absolute position is proposed by Dik (1980b: 152), who distinguishes the following: (81) (a) (b) (c) (d) VI languages V2 languages V2s or strong V2 languages V3 languages V1 languages and both types of V2 language have a functional pattern for clausesproper which begins: (82) P l V ( f ) S .

Man photographed the lady Finally, the fourth possibility, (4 Id), is exemplified in (45a-c), where neither order nor case-inflection serves as a cue to the differentiation of subject and object (45) (a) (b) (c) Das Mädchen, das die Frau photographierte The girl who/whom the lady photographed 'The girl who photographed the lady' or 'The girl whom the lady photographed' Das Mädchen, das die Männer liebten The girl whom the men loved Das Mädchen, das das Gebäude photographierte The girl who the building photographed 'The girl who photographed the building' From the point of view of Functional Linguistics, examples of this type are rather interesting, since they illustrate the interaction between the systemic and pragmatic aspects of language.

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Constituent Order in Functional Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives by John H. Connolly

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