By Patricia H. Marks
The overthrow of Viceroy Joaqu??n de l. a. Pezuela on 29 January 1821 has now not bought a lot awareness from historians, who've tended to view it as an easy army rebellion. but during this cautious examine of the episode, according to deep archival study, Patricia Marks unearths it to be a pivotal occasion within the rising advertisement clash among liberal free-traders and protectionists that retarded the institution of a reliable nationwide kingdom in post-independence Peru. The overthrow of the viceroy thereby can be visible as an early manifestation of Latin American praetorianism, during which a selected zone of the civilian inhabitants, not able to succeed politically and unwilling to compromise, pressures military officials to behave as a way to store the country.
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Extra resources for Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru
The consulados in Cuba, Caracas, and Mexico admitted landowners to membership: Mercedes M. , Comercio y comerciantes y sus proyecciones en la independencia venezolana (Caracas: Vargas, 1963), 48. Marks FM-Chap 4 8/22/07 10:56 AM Page 28 28 deconstructing legitimacy valleys. 44 Landowners engaged in export agriculture had good reasons for refusing to seek membership in the consulado. Whenever the consulado was required to raise money for viceregal defense, its officers attempted to maximize the number of individuals liable for quotas.
Many of them were peninsular-born merchants who emigrated to Peru in the 1750s and 1760s. The metropolitan merchants were either Spaniards resident in Spain or those who, although sometimes long-term residents of Lima, were primarily engaged in the Atlantic trade and had direct ties to merchants matriculated in the consulado of Cádiz or other peninsular consulados. 70 70. On the distinction between resident or limeño merchants and metropolitan merchants, which does not take into account patterns of trade, see Parrón Salas, Reformas borbónicas, 172; María Encarnación Rodríguez Vicente, “Notas sobre la emigración española al Perú a fines del siglo xviii y comienzos del xix,” Revista Internacional de Sociología, 2a época, Tomo 31, nos.
Thus the 123 merchants identified in these registers as Atlantic traders were by no means all of those involved in the intercontinental trade. For example, Ignacio Santiago de Rotalde appears only as an agent in 1803, transferring the trivial sum of 1,500 pesos to an obscure woman68; his brother Manuel does not appear at all. 69 Birthplaces are known for 53 (43 percent) of the Atlantic traders resident in Peru in 1803. Of them, 17 (32 percent) were criollos, 35 (66 percent) were peninsulars, and one was born in France.
Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru by Patricia H. Marks