By Pietro Lunardi
This paintings illustrates how the research of managed Deformation in Rocks and Soils (ADECO-RS) is utilized in the layout and the development of tunnels.
The ADECO-RS technique makes a transparent contrast among the layout and the development levels and permits trustworthy forecasts of development instances and prices to be made. It makes use of the development center (the center of flooring prior to the face) as a structural instrument for the lengthy and brief time period stabilisation of tunnels, after its stress has first been regulated utilizing conservation thoughts. Tunnels can therefore be pushed in tough stress-strain stipulations to predetermined protection criteria with operations industrialised and scheduled precisely.
Thanks to this strategy layout engineers were capable of hire commercial standards in tunnel excavation, even below tremendous tough stress-strain conditions.
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Extra info for Design and Construction of Tunnels: Analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS)
The area in which the tunnel is located lies in the lake basin of the Valdarno Superiore and consists of silty sands and sandy silts interbedded with silty clay levels containing sandy lentils and levels saturated with water (Fig. 8). The original State Railways design involved half face advance and stabilisation of the walls with steel ribs and shotcrete. The ribs were anchored at the feet with sub-horizontal tie bars and given a foundation of micropiles or columns of ground improved by jet-grouting.
2 MPa (= 0 – 2 Kg/cm2) φ’ = drained angle of friction = 18°– 24° E = Young’s elastic modulus = 50 – 500 Mpa (= 500 – 5,000 Kg/cm2). 3 The diagnosis phase The input for this phase was the geological, geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeological knowledge obtained using theoretical and experimental methods to process the data from in situ surveys and laboratory tests performed on the ground in question. It was used to make forecasts of the stress-strain behaviour of the face and the cavity in the absence of intervention to stabilise the tunnel.
At the depth of the tunnel the ground is saturated with water and extremely sensitive to disturbance. 1 A brief history of the excavation Work began in 1984 at the North portal and continued slowly with repeated and serious incidents until April 1990 (Fig. 13) . Fig. 13 45 46 From the research to ADECO-RS The birth of fibre glass reinforcement of the advance core Not only was full face mechanical precutting technology used for the first time in the world during the construction of the tunnels on the Sibari-Cosenza railway line, but the foundations were also laid for the development of an other type of conservative intervention, which was to become an important part of the history of tunnelling in years to come.
Design and Construction of Tunnels: Analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS) by Pietro Lunardi