By Wendy N. Erber
The prognosis and tracking of hematological malignancies is advanced and calls for a scientific technique. Morphology, phone phenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics are crucial, and the implications has to be built-in. Diagnostic concepts in Hematological Malignancies information the foundations and functions of every of those try out kinds within the prognosis of hematological malignancies in blood and bone marrow. the 1st part describes the try out modalities - together with methodological ideas, information interpretation and barriers - and is illustrated by means of medical examples. the second one part specializes in the medical entities, detailing the main applicable exams for prognosis, staging and tracking of other hematological malignancies and comprises attempt usage to spot prognostic markers and strength healing objectives. With contributions from a number of overseas specialists, this illustrated ebook is a necessary source for certified and trainee hematologists, oncologists, and pathologists. it is a functional and necessary advisor, offering a rational and based method of the laboratory review of hematological malignancies.
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Extra resources for Diagnostic Techniques in Hematological Malignancies 1st edition 2010
In this situation the cellularity and morphology of the “squash” preparation may be more representative of overall hematopoietic activity and the presence of a neoplastic inﬁltrate. e. “blood tap”) the sample may still be informative if there is a signiﬁcant abnormal cell inﬁltrate. However if the sample is aparticulate, and there are no abnormal cells (a “blood tap”), the diagnosis will be dependent on the bone marrow trephine biopsy ﬁndings. The number and the morphological appearances of all cell lineages, and any abnormal cells present in the marrow, should be reported.
A. Hypercellular marrow with a diffuse inﬁltrate in a case of B lymphoblastic leukemia. b. Subtle interstitial inﬁltrate in a natural killer-cell lymphoma. c. Paratrabecular inﬁltrate in systemic mastocytosis. d. Nodular interstitial inﬁltrate in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 7) . This gives a complete interpretation of bone marrow function and a single WHO classiﬁcation [1,9,21]. This ensures that all results are considered together and that any potential discrepancies which may, on occasion, arise with different samples are resolved prior to the ﬁnal report.
Ow cytometry and immunocytochemistry). 5. Cytochemical stains that can be used for the assessment of hematological malignancies [13,14]. Substrate type Cytochemical test Cellular component Cell type Hematological malignancy NonEnzyme Perls’ Prussian Blue Iron (ferric) Macrophages Late normoblasts Periodic acidSchiff Carbohydrate Granulocytes Iron status of all disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative neoplasms Precursor lymphoid neoplasms (block positivity) Erythroleukemia Plasma cell myeloma Megakaryocytes Plasma cells Enzyme Sudan Black B Lipid Myeloid cells Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Oil Red O Lipid Neoplastic B-cells Burkitt lymphoma Toluidine Blue Metachromasia Basophils Mast cells Systemic mastocytosis Chronic myelogenous leukemia (basophils positive) Alkaline phosphatase Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase Neutrophils (Score 0–400) Polycythemia vera (high score) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (low score) Acid phosphatase Lysosomes Majority of normal hematopoietic cells T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma Mature T-cell neoplasms Hairy cell leukemia (resistant to tartrate) Non-speciﬁc esterases α-naphthyl acetate esterase Monocytes (diffuse) Macrophages Lymphocytes (dot) Acute monocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia Speciﬁc esterases Chloroacetate esterase Neutrophils Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Systemic mastocytosis Lysozyme Lysozyme (muramidase) Myeloperoxidase Primary granules Myeloid cells Acute myeloid leukemias (granulocytic differentiation) Sudan Black B Myeloid cell granules Myeloid cells Eosinophils Acute myeloid leukemia Mast cells Monocytes Macrophages Acute monocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 17 1 Diagnostic techniques cytochemistry.
Diagnostic Techniques in Hematological Malignancies 1st edition 2010 by Wendy N. Erber