By Michael Turner

ISBN-10: 0333316827

ISBN-13: 9780333316825

ISBN-10: 134906033X

ISBN-13: 9781349060337

Enclosures in Britain, 1750-1830 (Studies in financial and Social background)

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The development of large compact farms sometimes preceded the formal enclosure created by rigid boundaries in much the same way as consolidation took place in the English open fields [in general see 133: 190-8; on the division ofrunrig without enclosure see 145: esp. 83-9]. Even in an advanced area like Fife there was land still unenclosed in 1830 that had been in a relatively compact state for 50 years [131: 114]. : 56-7, 195-6]. 32 (iv) A NOTE ON NON-PARLIAMENTARY ENCLOSURE Though this pamphlet is mainly concerned with parliamentary enclosure it is necessary to mention other forms of enclosure in order to put the scale of what weare considering into perspective.

In 1669 two further acts built upon the 1661 legislation, and in 1685 the 1661 enclosure act was renewed [150: 100~]. These acts have been associated with promoting tree plantations and the expansion of the cattle trade because they were largely used for facilitating, encouraging and protecting enclosures for young trees and grazings. The association of planting timber with enclosure continued in some areas until the late eighteenth century [142: xix-xx). Scottish enclosures well into the eighteenth century were mostly for these purposes of creating physical boundaries, for whatever reason, as distinct from the division of holdings or-the introduction of individual farming over collective husbandry [132: 56; on grazing aspects see 143].

This is directly related to price movements in the sense that it was a response to the agricultural depression of the first half of the eighteenth century and the stability of prices in the long run dating back to the late seventeenth century. The peak of enclosure activity occurred in the wake of this price stability rather than during it. A learning process took place producing a diffusion of enclosure activity from the pre-1750 modest beginnings (which included the adjustment of field rules explained in section ii above) to a peak of enclosing in the 1770s.

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Enclosures in Britain 1750–1830 by Michael Turner

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