By S. Fyneface-Ogan
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Extra info for Epidural Analgesia - Current Views and Approaches
A randomized sequential allocation study to determine the minimum effective analgesic concentration of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in patients receiving epidural analgesia for labor. 1383-1386. , & Auroy Y. (2002). mL(1): a study in singleton breech presentation. 13-18. , & Michel C. (2001). 125% bupivacaine on the quality of patientcontrolled epidural analgesia during labor. 184-188. , & Stubhaug A. (2008). Assessment of pain. 17-24. J. (2008). Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine.
E. (2004). Comparison of intrathecal levobupivacaine with and without fentanyl in combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia. I87-I91. H. (2001). Cardiotoxicity with modern local anaesthetics: is there a safer choice? 333-342. O. (2007). An isobolographic analysis of diamorphine and levobupivacaine for epidural analgesia in early labour. 497-502. , & Gin T. (1993). 125% bupivacaine and clonidine as extradural analgesia in the first stage of labour. 651-656. F. (2000). Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labor: the addition of clonidine to bupivacaine-fentanyl.
Relative onset was defined as the time that the relative CNS concentration first reached 80% of maximum and relative duration was defined as the period during which the concentration remained more than 80%. For an IV bolus dose of all the common opioids, relative onset varies from approximately 1 min for alfentanil to 6 min for morphine, and relative durations are 2 min and 96 min, respectively. They concluded that, although all of the common opioids (except alfentanil) have kinetic and dynamic properties suitable for IV-PCA, the relatively long duration of morphine makes it particularly suited for a gradual titration approach.
Epidural Analgesia - Current Views and Approaches by S. Fyneface-Ogan