By Martijn Blaauw
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Further reading: Evans (1982) Deference see Broad Content Definitional theory (classical theory): identifies concepts with individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions of their satisfaction known to competent users of them. The theory was outlined by Plato and later became associated with Russell’s and Moore’s conceptual analysis (determination of the logical structure of concepts), reaching its peak in logical positivism. The theory proved untenable because definitions cannot exhaustively give the content of most concepts, and people do not know the definitions of such common concepts as snow, beautiful or game.
Further reading: Bear et al. (2001) Brains in Vats (brain-in-a-bottle): a thought experiment in favour of internalism (and also indirect representationalism) intended to show that a brain put in a vat and electrically stimulated (or, in more recent versions, existing in virtual reality) will have a full mental life of thoughts and experiences while not receiving any input from the environment. The scepticism engendered by the experiment PHILOSOPHY OF MIND A–Z 19 exploits our intuitions about the contingent character of mind–world relations.
Cognition encompasses perception, attention, object and pattern recognition, memory, learning, language processing, thinking, reasoning, planning, problem-solving and decision-making. The cognitive revolution of the mid-twentieth century was characterised by the increasing understanding that in their everyday behaviour organisms do not simply attend to immediate needs but try to find out about the world, to obtain information that may be relevant to future behaviour. Because organisms can only act out of what they represent and because the best known explanation of intelligent knowledge manipulation is computational, the notions of representation and computation are central to understanding the cognitive mind.
Epistemology A-Z by Martijn Blaauw