ISBN-10: 0495244465

ISBN-13: 9780495244462

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But materials engineers are continually faced with new challenges. The X-33 and Venturestar are examples of advanced reusable vehicles intended to carry passengers into space using a single stage of rocket engines. Figure 1-9 shows a schematic of the X-33 prototype. The development of even more exotic materials and processing techniques is necessary in order to tolerate the high temperatures that will be encountered. Corrosion Most of the time, failure of materials occurs as a result of corrosion and some form of tensile overload.

A tragic reminder of this is the collapse of the steel beams used in the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001. High temperatures change the structure of ceramics and cause polymers to melt or char. Very low temperatures, at the other extreme, may cause a metal or polymer to fail in a brittle manner, even though the applied loads are low. This low temperature em- Figure 1-8 Increasing temperature normally reduces the strength of a material. Polymers are suitable only at low temperatures.

An aluminum atom readily gives up its outer three electrons to empty the 3s and 3p levels. The atomic bonding and the chemical behavior of aluminum are determined by the mechanism through which these three electrons interact with surrounding atoms. On the other hand, chlorine contains seven electrons in the outer 3s and 3p levels. The reactivity of chlorine is caused by its desire to fill its outer energy level by accepting an electron. 30 CHAPTER 2 Atomic Structure Figure 2-8 The electronegativities of selected elements relative to the position of the elements in the periodic table.

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Essentials of materials science and engineering by FULAY, P.P. ASKELAND D.R.

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