By CarbÃ³ Santiago, Edward P.M. Gardener, Philip Molyneux
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Extra resources for Financial Exclusion
Another option is seeking other (typically more expensive and risky in the event of default) kinds Financial Exclusion in the UK 41 of borrowing. In many instances, ﬁnancial exclusion inevitably reinforces the wider consequences of social exclusion. The lack of pension provision is another important area of ﬁnancial exclusion. Since providing for a pension is increasingly the norm for most people, lack of pension provision further exacerbates the increasing polarisation of access to ﬁnancial services.
The UK Government’s concern with ﬁnancial exclusion is comparatively new. Up until recently, there has also been relatively little research on the causes and consequences of ﬁnancial exclusion in the UK. In the past decade, however, a burgeoning literature has developed. During the term of the present Labour Government, ﬁnancial exclusion has become recognised as one of the major issues facing disadvantaged communities. Financial exclusion can be seen as part of the wider concept of social exclusion, which may be summarised as: a shorthand term for what can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environment, bad health, poverty and family breakdown.
On the one hand, it opens up wider access to mainstream ﬁnancial services; on the other hand, it can itself be a source of problem debt. One of the most prominent sources of ﬁnancial exclusion indicators in the UK is the New Policy Institutes (NPI) annual studies on Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion. The NPI draws on three indicators of ﬁnancial exclusion derived from extant Government data: • the percentage of households without a bank or building society account; • the percentage of households without household or home contents insurance; • the percentage of households in mortgage arrears for over 12 months.
Financial Exclusion by CarbÃ³ Santiago, Edward P.M. Gardener, Philip Molyneux