By Marianna C Slocum
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Extra resources for Gramatica paez
The second part would say something like: (c) (ii) The [ff voiced] feature of /r/ becomes [fl voiced] after a sound which is [−sonorant], [−continuant] and [−voiced]: informally, ‘voiced /r/ (whether approximant or fricative) becomes voiceless after /p/, /t/ or /k/’. As well as making it possible to refer to classes of phonemes, distinctive features can make explicit another frequentlyoccurring property of allophonic rules. In both (c)(i) and (c)(ii) above, the value of one feature of the segment concerned is altered to agree with the value of that same feature in the preceding segment: in (c)(i) the feature concerned is [sonorant] and its value changes from+to−, while in (c)(ii) it is [voiced] and its value again changes from+to−.
Thus in this case the vowel change is not an alternation in the sense we are dealing with here. The /s/~/z/ alternation recurs in the pronunciation of the possessive ending (cat’s/kæts/ v. dog’s/dɒgz/), in the third person singular ending in the present of verbs (looks/lʊks/ v. sees/si:z/), and in the contracted forms of is and has (it’s arrived /ɪts/ v. he’s arrived /hi:z/). Analogous to the /s/~/z/ alternation is the /t/~/d/ alternation shown by regular past tenses and past participles in English: /t/ after a voiceless sound, as in stopped /stɒpt/, but /d/ after a voiced sound, as in stayed /steɪd/ and waited /weɪtɪd/.
Continuant]: Air flow through oral cavity not blocked. 5). [+strident]: High level of noise (‘sibilance’). Minus values of a feature mean the absence of the property. g. the ‘voiceless fricatives’ /f θ s ʃ/ are the class of English sounds which in feature terms are both [−voiced] and [+continuant]; the ‘coronal sonorants’ /l n r/ are the class which are both [+sonorant] and [+coronal]; the ‘alveolar plosives’ /t d/ are the class which are [−sonorant], [+coronal], [−anterior] and [−continuant]; in the framework we have set up here, the ‘labials’ /p b f v w m/ are in fact the set of sounds which are both [−coronal] and [+anterior].
Gramatica paez by Marianna C Slocum