By Manfred Binder, Martin Jänicke, Ulrich Petschow
Structural switch in uncomplicated industries is mostly interpreted as an self reliant financial approach. a few authors declare that there's a tendency to exploit the "end of the period of materials", therefore leading to a decline of the elemental industries. this type of method might evidently gain the surroundings. vintage monetary theories, which care for structural switch in a slightly holistic manner, correspond to this development, predicting both a shift in the direction of production and companies or a relocation of previous uncomplicated industries to constructing international locations. at the foundation of this dematerialization speculation, comparative case reviews research intimately the using forces at the back of business restructuring with reference to varied industries and nations in Europe, the place this type of decline has been saw in fresh years.
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Additional resources for Green Industrial Restructuring: International Case Studies and Theoretical Interpretations
Thus, price competition is seen as the most important determinant of structural change, although there are only three domestic producers, with Magrolinz as undisputed core actor and one dominant wholesaler (RWA). The restructuring did not cause major problems, because the industry is small, with only some 500 employees. The reasons for declining consumption were mainly • over-production and corresponding agricultural set-aside policies • increased efficiency in fertiliser use, to save costs and decrease environmental stress • the rise of organic farming While the impact of public policies on over-capacity in agriculture has been ambiguous at best, they have clearly supported increased efficiency by funding research, imposing regulations and introducing a fertiliser tax (levied 1986-94).
21). Typically for most countries, Austrian cement consumption and production were more or less equal until the early 1990s. Both fell by about 30% between 1972 and the mid-1980s. Afterwards, consumption rose substantially, but fell again after 1994. In recent years, imports from Eastern Europe have increased and forced domestic production to new lows. The massive job losses were addressed by social compensation plans. The close network between administration, private management, trade unions, researchers and the interested general public provide innovative management of the social as well as the environmental problems of this industry.
Kt 450000 400000 6000 350000 5000 300000 4000 250000 3000 200000 150000 2000 100000 1000 50000 60 65 70 75 eo 0 e5 90 95 Source : UN, OSTAT, VOZ Fig. 21. Cement production in Austria and the OECD-24 and consumption in Austria 1960-96 3500 400000 3000 350000 2500 ·········· ······---· 300000 2000 ---- -------- 250000 200000 1500 150000 1000 100000 500 50000 60 65 70 75 eo 0 e5 90 95 Source: UN, ECE Fig. 22. $/cap (purchasing power parities) 25000 Source: lEA Fig.
Green Industrial Restructuring: International Case Studies and Theoretical Interpretations by Manfred Binder, Martin Jänicke, Ulrich Petschow