By Fernando Pacheco Torgal; J Labrincha; Cristina Leonelli; Angel Palomo Sánchez; P Chindaprasirt

ISBN-10: 1782422765

ISBN-13: 9781782422761

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Extra resources for Handbook of alkali-activated cements, mortars and concretes

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The minority phases whose formation during the alkaline activation of slag has marshalled the widest consensus are listed below. , 1992; Wang and Scrivener, 1995). Hydrotalcite is a natural mineral whose structure consists of layers of brucite (Mg(OH)2) with interstitial water molecules and CO32– ions. These (often sub-microscopic) crystals are scattered throughout the C‑A‑S‑H gel. Phases of this type have also been found in cement + slag blends. • C4AH13-type phases have been detected in slag activated with NaOH.

167–193. , Fernandez-Jimenez, A. and Palomo, A. (2013a) Variation in hybrid cements over time: alkaline activation of fly ash–Portland cement blends. Cement and Concrete Research 52, 112–122. , Fernandez-Jimenez, A. and Palomo, A. (2013b) Alkali-activated based concrete. ) Pacheco-Torgal, S. Jalali, J. M. John, eds). Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp. 439–487. , de Lacaillerie, J. and Roussel, N. (2011) An environmental evaluation of geopolymer based concrete production: reviewing current research trends.

2003). , 2003). They showed that the presence of Al gives rise to gels with longer linear chains as well as to the possible existence of sporadic inter-chain, Si‑O‑Al bonds and consequently two‑dimensional (Q3(nAl) unit, cross-linked) structures. 3). These same authors established that the type of activator has a direct effect on the degree of silicate species condensation in the gel structure; when the activator used was waterglass, highly condensed structures formed. Consequently, a substantial number of Q2(1Al) and Q3(nAl) units were observed, along with Q1(0Al) and Q2(0Al) units, favouring the formation of twodimensional, cross‑linked structures.

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Handbook of alkali-activated cements, mortars and concretes by Fernando Pacheco Torgal; J Labrincha; Cristina Leonelli; Angel Palomo Sánchez; P Chindaprasirt

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