By Otfried Höffe

ISBN-10: 0791420949

ISBN-13: 9780791420942

During this ebook, Hoffe provides a transparent, comprehensible description of Kant’s philosophical improvement and impression, and he units forth Kant’s major principles from the Critique of natural cause and the ethics to the philosophy of legislations, historical past, faith, and artwork. In his severe remedy, Hoffe exhibits why Kant’s philosophy remains to be proper and not easy to us this present day.

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After the greatly changed second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason (1787), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Critique of Judgment (1790) and Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone34 (1793) are published. With the essay on religion Kant comes into conflict with the Prussian censor. 3 The Conflict with the Censor Kant's life first falls within the reign of the Prussian kings Frederick William I, the Soldier King (171340), and Frederick II, the Great (174086), two exemplary representatives of enlightened absolutism.

The same holds for epistemology. The idea of the Critique of Pure Reason is to dovetail both sides. A philosophical theory of being, a theory of the nature of objects, can be achieved according to Kant only as a theory of the knowledge of being; and a theory of knowledge only as the clarification of the notion of an object. 3 Metaphysics as a Science or: Concerning the Possibility of Synthetic Judgments A Priori ("Introduction") Kant explains the specifically metaphysical type of knowledge (knowledge from pure reason) as well as the character of knowledge in mathematics and the pure physical sciences in terms of a twofold disjunctive division: (1) knowledge is valid either a priori or a posteriori; (2) judgments are either synthetic or analytic.

One of the contending parties is rationalistic metaphysics, represented in the modern age by Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche and Leibniz. Kant has primarily Wolff's school of metaphysics in mind, which predominated in scholarly discussions of the time. Wolff sees experience as a genuine source of knowledge but believes that we can discern something about reality by mere thought (pure reason). Kant considers the rationalists to be dogmatic and despotic because they force upon us certain fundamental assumptionsfor instance that the soul is of a simple nature and immortal or that the world has a beginning and God exists without a preliminary critique of reason.

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Immanuel Kant by Otfried Höffe

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