By Gloria La Cava
Following global conflict II, Italy underwent an important social concern because of an unparalleled unemployment price. accordingly, either the Italian and the U.S. governments promoted and sponsored the emigration of the unemployed and the unskilled, rather to Latin the US, which will relieve Italy from inner social tensions which could politically increase its Communist social gathering. by way of interpreting the Brazilian case, the place backed emigration used to be extra important than in different places, Italians in Brazil indicates how this technique finally failed, as so much Italians both repatriated, re-emigrated to extra beautiful nations, or just didn't decide upon Brazil as their vacation spot. the commonly accredited trust that Italian immigrants have been constantly the main simply built-in workforce in Brazil, either from an financial and cultural perspective, is consequently challenged through the historic proof supplied during this examine.
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Extra info for Italians in Brazil: The Post-World War II Experience
The agrarian reform carried out in Southern Italy since mid-1948 failed to reach all landless peasants, although it helped to contain social unrest. The reform pursued a short term objective (reduction of rural unemployment), rather than a long term policy aimed at the comprehensive development of the peasant sector. It involved the expropriation and redistribution of 760,000 hectares, (60 percent of which located in the South), among 113,000 peasant household heads, with an average of 6 to 8 hectare per holding.
First, he criticized the inadequacy of the criteria used in the national census to establish, for example, the precise regional origins of foreigners as well as the national descent from the mother and father sides. What the 1920 census defined as a Brazilian could be in fact the son of any foreigner. This, argued Oliveira Vianna, made an assessment of apparently exogamous marriages very difficult. 6 percent, which he considered quite low. We all considered the extreme south as a marvellous field of foreigners’ assimilation, with the various ethnic groups intensively merging one another.
The immediate post-war emigration to Argentina, which at the time was experiencing the greatest economic boom in Latin America due to the increasing world demand for its food exports, occurred precisely under such a scheme. Table 3 shows that Latin America was the most significant non-European destination for Italian emigrants between 1946 and 1957. The largest flow, of which Argentina alone absorbed 73 percent, arrived in the period 1946–1951. The peak year was 1949 with 126,651 expatriations, but from then on there was a progressive drop: 110,559 in 1950 and 85,770 in 1951.
Italians in Brazil: The Post-World War II Experience by Gloria La Cava