By Gabriel Ondetti

ISBN-10: 0271033533

ISBN-13: 9780271033532

Brazil is a rustic of utmost inequalities, essentially the most vital of that's the extreme focus of rural land possession. In fresh a long time, despite the fact that, negative landless staff have fastened an immense problem to this scenario. A large grassroots social stream led by way of the circulation of Landless Rural employees (MST) has mobilized thousands of households to strain gurus for land reform via mass protest. This publication explores the evolution of the landless circulate from its delivery through the twilight years of Brazil’s army dictatorship in the course of the first govt of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. It makes use of this situation to check a couple of significant theoretical views on social pursuits and engages in a serious discussion with either modern political chance conception and Mancur Olson’s vintage fiscal idea of collective action.

Ondetti seeks to provide an explanation for the foremost moments of switch within the landless movement's development trajectory: its preliminary emergence within the past due Nineteen Seventies and early 80s, its swift takeoff within the mid-1990s, its acute yet finally transitority main issue within the early 2000s, and its resurgence in the course of Lula's first time period in place of work. He reveals robust help for the influential, yet much-criticized political chance standpoint. even as, in spite of the fact that, he underscores many of the issues of how political chance has been conceptualized long ago. The publication additionally seeks to make clear the anomalous undeniable fact that the landless circulation persevered to extend within the decade following the recovery of Brazilian democracy in 1985 regardless of the final development towards social-movement decline. His argument, which highlights the bizarre constitution of incentives desirous about the fight for land in Brazil, casts doubt on a key assumption underlying Olson's theory.

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Extra resources for Land, Protest, and Politics: The Landless Movement and the Struggle for Agrarian Reform in Brazil

Sample text

Peasant discontent may also grow in response to state penetration of previously isolated rural areas, bringing new economic burdens, particularly increased taxation (Tilly 1964; Migdal 1974; Scott 1976). Most of these analyses focus on long-term changes. However, Scott (1976) seems to acknowledge that it is not the capitalist penetration of agriculture per se, but the short-term famine that directly provokes peasant revolt. Some other authors also discuss how relatively conjunctural changes in socioeconomic conditions provoke mobilization.

Where they are available, I illustrate my discussion with examples of how each theoretical perspective has been applied to rural social movement activity, particularly in the developing world. In doing this I hope to give the reader a better idea of how they may be applied to my specific case. It should be understood, however, that these examples by no means exhaust the ways in which these concepts can potentially be operationalized. In addition to laying out a basic theoretical framework, in this chapter I discuss the long-standing controversy surrounding Olson’s (1965) theory of collective action with regard to its relevance for social movements.

Social struggles are a response to the intensified exploitation of workers by the capitalist class, as well as increased consciousness of that exploitation. S. social movement theory, often referred to as the ‘‘collective behavior’’ school, also tended to see protest as a product of grassroots discontent arising from broad, disruptive social changes. However, unlike Marxist theory, which takes social class as its unit of analysis and views protestors as pursuing instrumental goals arising from concrete social needs, this current focuses on the individual psychological states generated by social change and tends to view protest as an irrational or spontaneous acting out of internal tensions.

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Land, Protest, and Politics: The Landless Movement and the Struggle for Agrarian Reform in Brazil by Gabriel Ondetti

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