By Geoffrey Leech, Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Susan Conrad, Edward Finegan
The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English is a progressive, corpus-based reference grammar of English, in keeping with a groundbreaking examine undertaking to research the methods within which English grammar is admittedly used. The publication seems to be at 4 textual content varieties conversation, fiction, information reportage, and educational prose and stories statistical findings in addition to interpreting the explanations that a selected grammatical selection.
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Extra resources for Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English
G. g. g. g. Dune by Frank Herbert). Roughly half the texts in the subcorpus can be classified as 'general' fiction. These include modern classics like Mr. Sammler's Planet by Saul Bellow, and Catch 22 by Joseph Heller, as well as most of the pre-1950 novels listed above. 1 56,100 arts 418,400 foreignlworld news business 542,800 social news 1,233,900 Sports minor categories architecture 6,400 living auto 1,400 nature dom~stid~ocallcit~ news News Unless otherwise stated, the register analyses of news in the grammar are based on a subcorpus of BrE news texts sampled from ten different newspapers, representing a range of political and regional differences.
The repetitive nature of conversation is discussed further in Chapters 13 and 14. The TTR differences among the written registers are more surprising. We naturally expect a somewhat higher TTR for fiction, where the focus is more on form and elegance of expression. The high TTR in news reflects the extremely high density of nominal elements in that register, used to refer to a diverse range of people, places, objects, events, etc. At the other extreme, academic prose has the second lowest TTR, reflecting the fact that a great deal of academic writing has a restricted technical vocabulary and is therefore less variable than fiction and news reportage.
Morphemes will only be briefly touched on in describing the structure of words. 13). In general, this book differs from a conventional grammar in paying more attention to the use of grammatical elements in discourse. The ultimate aim is to show how different types of discourse may be characterized by a different selection of grammatical elements, and, in turn, to examine what usage in discourse may reveal about the nature of grammatical elements. At each level, grammatical units can be characterized in four main ways.
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English by Geoffrey Leech, Douglas Biber, Stig Johansson, Susan Conrad, Edward Finegan