By Héctor Lindo-Fuentes

ISBN-10: 082635081X

ISBN-13: 9780826350817

Within the Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies, El Salvador’s reigning army regime instituted a sequence of reforms that sought to modernize the rustic and undermine ideological radicalism, the main formidable of which was once an schooling initiative. It was once multifaceted, yet its such a lot debatable part was once using televisions in study rooms. introduced in 1968 and lasting till the eve of civil battle within the overdue Nineteen Seventies, the reform ended in scholars receiving guide via courses broadcast from the capital urban of San Salvador. The Salvadoran academics’ union adverse the content material and the strategy of the reform and introduced mammoth moves. the army regime responded with repressive violence, additional alienating educators and pushing lots of them into guerrilla fronts.

In this considerate collaborative research, the authors study the strategies through which schooling reform grew to become entwined in debates over theories of modernization and the politics of anticommunism. additional research examines how the flow driven the rustic into the kind of brutal infighting that was once happening in the course of the 3rd international because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. struggled to impose their political philosophies on constructing international locations.

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Those who were not enmeshed in modernization theory viewed the reform in the broader political and social context of El Salvador. 28 introduction They questioned the merits of the Salvadoran government’s version of modernizing development, pointed to the country’s rapid deterioration, and said that not only was its education reform a failure but El Salvador also was a model to be avoided. Ironically, Schramm experienced an about-face and fell into this latter camp. In 1979 he critiqued the policies that he and other development agencies had implemented in the 1960s and 1970s.

S. S. foreign policy. A main spark for that development, especially in regard to Latin America, was the Cuban Revolution in January 1959. S. S. interests. Whereas before they used aid sparingly in poor countries, now they saw it as a necessary way to counter the appeal of Castro and the revolutionaries. The election of John F. Kennedy in November 1960 pushed modernization theory to the forefront of foreign policy. Kennedy’s announcement of the founding of the Alliance for Progress in March 1961 embodied the principles of modernization theory.

According to this perspective, the Alliance had two fundamental flaws. S. S. imperialism. 45 In the specific case of Central America, critics of the Alliance have mentioned that it strengthened local elites and authoritarian military regimes. 46 We are not looking to overturn this strong and well-founded consensus that the Alliance was a failure. But our case study of an alleged Alliance success, El Salvador’s 1968 education reform, sheds new light on the complex way the Alliance functioned in a host country.

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Modernizing Minds in El Salvador: Education Reform and the Cold War, 1960–1980 by Héctor Lindo-Fuentes

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