By S. J. Freeth (auth.), Samuel J. Freeth, Charles O. Ofoegbu, K. Mosto Onuoha (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3663052397

ISBN-13: 9783663052395

ISBN-10: 3663052419

ISBN-13: 9783663052418

Attention to the issues posed by means of traditional dangers in West and significant Africa was once introduced into sharp concentration by way of the deaths of an envisioned 1700 humans within the valleys to the north of Lake Nyos in 1986. ahead of that the one, good documented, significant usual disaster used to be the 1983 earthquake which killed not less than 275 humans in northwestern Guinea. although we'd no longer desire to seem to recommend that the 1939 Accra earthquake, which killed sixteen humans, or the Lake Monoun catastrophe, which killed 37 humans in 1984, weren't major occasions for the parts involved. the total horror of the Lake Nyos gasoline catastrophe used to be exacerbated, so far as the skin global was once involved, by way of preliminary uncertainty relating its reason. throughout the first part of the research there have been substantial disagreements among the various engaging teams of scientists. lots of those disagreements have now been resolved and it really is to be was hoping that the contributions during this quantity will additional support to solve a few of the awesome uncertainties. despite the fact that, even though it is necessary to appreciate what occurred at Lake Nyos in 1986, and why it occurred, it really is extra vital for the way forward for that sector that additional related mess ups may be kept away from. we will be able to purely wish that this quantity may also help to set up a superior origin for destiny study into methods of removal extra fuel from the lake.

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Carbonate springs are an example of this phenomena in action. Migrating ground water as such is unlikely to release potentially hazardous quantities of carbon dioxide at the surface. However, in volcanic areas deep stable lakes may become highly charged with dissolved gas. Dissolved carbon dioxide will slightly increase the density of water and therefore a high carbon dioxide content at depth tends to increase the stability of a lake. But if, for whatever reason, the stability of that lake is disturbed and gas charged bottom water is brought towards the surface, then any bubbles of gas which are released will rise dragging up more gas charged water and setting off run-away degassing of the lake.

Gas discharge at Lake Nyos. Nature 346, 322-323. Shanklin, E. 1989. Exploding lakes and maleficent water in Grassfields legends and myth. J. Volcano!. Geotherm. Res. 39, 233-246. J. W. e. 1987. Origin of the lethal gas burst from Lake Monoun, Cameroun. J. Volcano!. Geotherm. Res. 31, 1-16. E. 1967. Description of Tilapia deckerti sp. nov. from Lake Ejagham, West Cameroon (Pisces, Cichlidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 76, 349-356. E. 1972. Description of a small new Tilapia (Pisces, Cichlidae) from West-Cameroon.

On the offshore islands in the Gulf of Guinea there are three large volcanic lakes, two on Bioko and one on Pagalu, all of which are of unknown depth. On criteria of size and depth it is therefore possible to eliminate all but 27 of the West African volcanic lakes from a list of lakes which might contain potentially hazardous quantities of carbon dioxide. And of these 27 lakes, there are 12 which are only on the list because they are of unknown depth. SOME LAKES HAVE BEEN CHECKED FOR EXCESS CARBON DIOXIDE The obvious way to check whether or not a lake contains excess gas at depth would be to collect water samples and return them to the laboratory for analysis.

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Natural Hazards in West and Central Africa by S. J. Freeth (auth.), Samuel J. Freeth, Charles O. Ofoegbu, K. Mosto Onuoha (eds.)


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