By Maya J John

ISBN-10: 1849734038

ISBN-13: 9781849734035

In the quest for sustainable fabrics, traditional polymers current an enticing replacement for lots of purposes in comparison to their artificial opposite numbers derived from petrochemicals. the 2 quantity set, normal Polymers, covers the synthesis, characterisation and functions of key typical polymeric structures together with their morphology, constitution, dynamics and houses. quantity one specializes in average polymer composites, together with either typical and protein fibres, and quantity on normal polymer nanocomposites. the 1st quantity examines the characterization, existence cycle evaluation and new resources of usual fibres and their strength in its place for artificial fibres in business purposes. It then explores the real developments within the box of wool, silk, spidersilk and mussel byssus fibres. the second one quantity seems on the homes and characterization of cellulose, chitosan, furanic, starch, wool and silk nanocomposites and the aptitude commercial functions of normal polymer nanocomposites. With contributions from major researchers in usual polymers from all over the world, usual Polymers offers a beneficial reference for fabric scientists, polymer chemists and polymer engineers.

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J. Kim, S. Kuga, M. Wada, T. Okano and T. Kondo, Biomacromolecules, 2000, 1, 488–492. 144. M. F. Rosa, E. S. Medeiros, J. A. Malmonge, K. S. Gregorski, D. F. Wood, L. H. C. Mattoso, G. Glenn, W. J. Orts and S. H. Imam, Carbohydr. , 2010, 81, 83–92. 145. T. Ebeling, M. Paillet, R. Borsali, O. Diat, A. Dufresne, J. Y. Cavaille´ and H. Chanzy, Langmuir, 1999, 15, 6123–6126. 146. E. M. Teixeira, A. C. Correˆa, A. Manzoli, F. L. Leite, C. R. de Oliveira and L. H. C. Mattoso, Cellulose, 2010, 17, 595–606.

134 Marchessault et al. 166 This birefringence results from two origins: (i) a structural form of anisotropy of cellulose and (ii) a flow anisotropy resulting from alignment of nanocrystals under flow generally operated before observation. 155 e nmÀ2, where e is the elementary charge. 140 For high thermostability in the crystals, low acid concentrations, small acid-to-cellulose ratios and short hydrolysis times should be used. 4 Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystal Films Very few studies reporting the mechanical properties of nanocrystal thin films have been published.

K. Pandey, W. S. Chu, C. S. Kim, C. S. Lee and S. H. Ahn, Composites, Part B, 2009, 40, 676–680. 112. K. Oksman, A. P. Mathew, D. Bondeson and I. Kvien, Compos. Sci. , 2006, 66, 2776–2784. 113. B. Braun, J. R. Dorgan and J. P. Chandler, Biomacromolecules, 2008, 9, 1255–1263. 114. S. A. Paralikar, J. Simonsen and J. Lombardi, J. Membr. , 2008, 320, 248–258. 115. A. P. Mangalam, J. Simonsen and A. Benight, Biomacromolecules, 2009, 10, 497–504. 116. M. Grunert and W. T. Winter, J. Polym. , 2002, 10, 27–30.

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Natural Polymers: Volume 2: Nanocomposites by Maya J John

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