By Yadava, Yogendra P; Pokharel, Madhav P; Prasain, Balaram; Watters, David E., 1944

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Extra info for Notes on Kusunda grammar : (a language isolate of Nepal)

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Qai b. ata qai c. ge-qai, [gya-qai] ‘wind’ ‘breath’ (lit. ‘mouth wind’) ‘breath’ (lit. ‘its wind’) A word that commonly occurs in combination with other words to mean something like ‘fluid’ or ‘juice,’ is very likely the etymon for ‘water’ with a lexicalized third person prefix, as in the following: (98) a. ta≥ b. gida≥ c. ata gida≥ ‘water’ ‘sap’ (lit. ‘its water’) ‘saliva’ (lit. ‘mouth water’) 46 Himalayan Linguistics: Archive No. 3 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– d.

In rapid speech, the sound [≥] sometimes arises as a coalescence of anti-causative ‘q’ plus syllabic ‘n,’ which marks realis, as in: (66) a. h˙ra-q-ßn open-AC-REAL > h˙ra-≥ > open-AC:REAL ‘open’ (participle) b. gya-q-ßn collapse-AC-REAL > gya-≥ > collapse-AC:REAL ‘collapsed’ (participle) • Aspiration. We have twelve examples of [kæ], at least three of which have a Nepali source, and one of which has a Kham or Magar source: (67) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. kæola lekæadßn kæurpa kæ˙rgun kæaidzi kæamdzi kæaÚ u kæakæ˙≥gu kæ˙rwi nikæedi ukæ˙- ‘stream’ < Nep.

3 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– (63) (64) Gyani Maiya: a. [orag˙n] b. [oragi] ‘He killed it’ (realis) ‘He killed it’ (past) Kamala: a. [oraÚn] b. [oraÚi] ‘He killed it’ (realis) ‘He killed it’ (past) It is difficult to determine if there is a velar fricative [x] in the data set. What sounds, in many contexts, to be a fricative [x] also occurs with equal frequency as an aspirate [kæ]. Given that velar sounds are often fricativized anyway, we are assuming that /kæ/, because of its instability in a predictable direction, has a variant [x].

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Notes on Kusunda grammar : (a language isolate of Nepal) by Yadava, Yogendra P; Pokharel, Madhav P; Prasain, Balaram; Watters, David E., 1944


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