By Brian R. Stickney

Las Monedas de Panama / История нумизматики республики Панама
Небольшой каталог по монетам Панамы,
цены даны в долларах США на 1971 год.

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Not only had the Allies su√ered much higher casualties from combat and cholera alike, their leaders also began to quarrel bitterly over military strategy, political control, and personal prestige. More important to Walker was the Allies’ apparent inability to enlist the Nicaraguan masses in their struggle. ’’∫Ω Indeed, the filibusters continued to be supported by Valle and other influential caudillos. As Walker later admitted, these popular leaders ‘‘aided to keep the people . . ’ ’’Ω≠ Yet Walker’s popular support eroded as the National War progressed.

Walker’s Revolution from Above Walker waited until he had usurped the presidency in July 1856 to launch his attack against native elites. In his own mind, Walker’s e√orts to reshape Nicaragua constituted a full-fledged revolution. ’’∏≥ Yet however loudly Walker proclaimed himself a revolutionary, elite Nicaraguans came to view him as a reactionary. To them, no act better symbolized Walker’s regressive bent than his promotion of slavery. ∏∂ Walker maintained that this colonial institution would solve Nicaragua’s perennial labor shortage and thus promote its capitalist development.

Walker left Granada ordering his men to burn the city down. ∫π The fire lasted for about ten days and razed one of the continent’s oldest cities. ’’ Walker’s men made sure to leave it behind. The loss of Granada was a great blow to the filibusters. Yet Walker still believed that his army would prevail over the Allied forces. Walker’s optimism stemmed largely from his racist belief that Anglo-Saxons were inher- 39 . a m e r i c a n i z at i o n t h r o u g h v i o l e n c e ently superior to Central Americans.

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Numismatic History of Republic of Panama by Brian R. Stickney

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