By John E. McMurry

ISBN-10: 0495391441

ISBN-13: 9780495391449

Well known for its student-friendly writing sort and clean point of view, John McMurry's natural CHEMISTRY WITH organic purposes bargains complete insurance of the principles of natural chemistry--enhanced by means of organic examples all through. in line with consumer suggestions, McMurry maintains to debate the natural chemistry of organic pathways and now provides dozen extra natural chemistry subject matters, in addition to new difficulties, new illustrations, and new essays. Media integration with natural OWL, a customizable on-line studying process and overview device, reduces school workload, allows guideline, and is helping scholars grasp recommendations via tutorials, simulations, and algorithmically generated homework questions.

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The intersection of a plane cutting through the ␴ bond is a circle. H H Circular cross-section During the bond-forming reaction 2 H· n H2, 436 kJ/mol (104 kcal/mol) of energy is released. Because the product H2 molecule has 436 kJ/mol less energy than the starting 2 H· atoms, the product is more stable than the reactant and we say that the H–H bond has a bond strength of 436 kJ/mol. ] 2H H2 Energy Two hydrogen atoms 436 kJ/mol Released when bond forms Absorbed when bond breaks H2 molecule How close are the two nuclei in the H2 molecule?

4 development of chemical bonding theory The number of covalent bonds an atom forms depends on how many additional valence electrons it needs to reach a noble-gas configuration. Hydrogen has one valence electron (1s) and needs one more to reach the helium configuration (1s2), so it forms one bond. Carbon has four valence electrons (2s2 2p2) and needs four more to reach the neon configuration (2s2 2p6), so it forms four bonds. Nitrogen has five valence electrons (2s2 2p3), needs three more, and forms three bonds; oxygen has six valence electrons (2s2 2p4), needs two more, and forms two bonds; and the halogens have seven valence electrons, need one more, and form one bond.

4 development of chemical bonding theory The number of covalent bonds an atom forms depends on how many additional valence electrons it needs to reach a noble-gas configuration. Hydrogen has one valence electron (1s) and needs one more to reach the helium configuration (1s2), so it forms one bond. Carbon has four valence electrons (2s2 2p2) and needs four more to reach the neon configuration (2s2 2p6), so it forms four bonds. Nitrogen has five valence electrons (2s2 2p3), needs three more, and forms three bonds; oxygen has six valence electrons (2s2 2p4), needs two more, and forms two bonds; and the halogens have seven valence electrons, need one more, and form one bond.

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Organic Chemistry: With Biological Applications (2nd Edition) by John E. McMurry


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