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1 nm). Bonds involving larger atoms (S, P, C1, Br, I) are longer and weaker. Finally, double and triple bonds are shorter and stronger than the corresponding single bonds; and we notice that the bond enthalpies of double and triple bonds are often somewhat less than twice and three times, respectively, the values of the single atom bonds (important exception: C=O bonds). To get an appreciation of the magnitude of bond energies, it is illustrative to compare bond enthalpies to the energy of molecular motion (translational, vibrational, and rotational), which, at room temperature, is typically on the order of a few tens of kilojoules per mole.

Finally, by introducing the nature and origins of specific compounds and compound classes, we will try to familiarize ourselves with the most important “chemical actors” that will be with us throughout the book. CH3methyl CH3- CHzethyl CH3- CHT CHz- n -propyl R- CH, Let us start out by a few comments about the terms used to describe carbon skeletons encountered in organic molecules. , a hydrocarbon substituent) in a molecule, the only possible “functionalities” are carbon-carbon double and triple bonds.

Furthermore, the partial charge separation makes each bond between dissimilar atoms a dipole. The (vector) sum of all bond dipoles in a structure yields the total dipole moment of the molecule, an entity that can be measured. However, it is the dipole moments of individual bonds that are most important with respect to the interactions of a given compound with its molecular surroundings. 3 it can be seen that according to Pauling’s scale, carbon is slightly more electron-attracting than hydrogen.

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Organic Syntheses An annual publication of satisfactory methods

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