By H. Pettersson MD, K. Jonsson MD (auth.), Dr. A. Mark Davies, Professor Dr. Holger Pettersson (eds.)
This quantity is meant to supply radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and different clinicians with an updated overview of imaging of the musculoskeletal process. within the first a part of the booklet, some of the imaging ideas are mentioned in flip, with specific awareness to their merits and drawbacks. the second one half then records the appliance of those ideas to the medical difficulties and illnesses encountered in particular anatomical areas. each one bankruptcy is written by means of an stated specialist within the box, and a wealth of illustrative fabric is included.
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Additional info for Orthopedic Imaging: Techniques and Applications
In the distinction of normal from abnormal tissues, detection of disease requires correct interpretation of the CT density measurements of the image display. Prior to MRI, CT, when compared with plain film radiography, provided numerous advantages in orthopaedic disorders, including the cross-sectional display, excellent contrast resolution, accurate measurement of tissue attenuation coefficients, noninvasiveness, reformatting and three-dimensional imaging. CT identifies undetectable and partially definable lesions on conventional plain films.
A delay of2-4h between the myelogram and the CT scan allows the contrast medium to dilute; scans done earlier, when the contrast material is too dense, causes masking of intradural detail (Fig. 18). Post-myelographic CT should ideally be done by rolling the patient over before transfer to the CT table to prevent layering of contrast medium and CSF. The cause of encroachment on the neural tissue as well as the exact location of this compression can be easily identified and differenti- CT discography is employed in some centres to help identify the exact location of annular disease with and without associated disc herniation (Fig.
The spondylolysis is easily missed in a attenuation of the tissues of interest. If, for example, a window width of 300 HU is chosen with a window level of 0, then the Hounsfield values ranging from +150 to -150 will appear on that image. Any value lower than -150 would appear black while values higher than + 150 would appear white. To summarise, therefore, changing the window width essentially alters image contrast whereas the window level is intended to optimise image display (SEERAM 1994). 2 Window Level The window level selects the centre CT value of the window width and therefore determines which Hounsfield numbers are displayed on the image.
Orthopedic Imaging: Techniques and Applications by H. Pettersson MD, K. Jonsson MD (auth.), Dr. A. Mark Davies, Professor Dr. Holger Pettersson (eds.)