By Richard S. Kayne
This can be a choice of formerly released essays on comparative syntax through the celebrated linguist Richard Kayne. The papers conceal problems with comparative syntax as they're utilized to French, Italian, and different Romance languages and dialects, jointly forming a strongly cohesive set that might be necessary to either students and scholars.
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Additional info for Parameters and Universals
Known/met M by G,. 1 had to do with the absence of past participle agreement in (15b) versus (15a), repeated as (75) versus (74): (74) Maria lo e stata. ('M it is been femsg ') (75) *Maria lo e stato. ('. . ) Example (76) contains a small clause that resembles the passive of a predicate complement of essere ('be'). Put another way, (76) has the status of (77): (77) ''Intelligent etc, Jean est devenu bete, ('intelligent been, J is become stupid') Thus, (75) itself must have the status of (77), as desired, since both are ungrammatical.
On the other, there are certain empirical properties of past participle agreement that (4), but not an analysis lacking the first empty category, will allow us to elucidate. To mention one before closing this introductory section, the agreement in (3) is impossible if the subject of the auxiliary is an expletive; we will show how (the Wh counterpart of) (4) leads to an account. 1. A unified theory We start from the position that, all other things being equal, it is desirable to have a maximally unified theory of past participle agreement and finite verb agreement.
9. It may be that the participle in (31) is agreeing with the expletive, but that does not tell us why the alternative agreement with the Wh-phrase is so strongly unavailable—note in particular that Burzio (1986, 369) gives a case with 'be' in Italian where both subject and clitic object agreement are (marginally) possible. ' is less sharp than (31), presumably because the syntactic cliticization of 'il' here (to the inverted auxiliary; see Kayne (1983b)) allows marginally taking the subject [e] to be a (nonexpletive) variable locally bound by the Wh-phrase.
Parameters and Universals by Richard S. Kayne