By Mohammed N. Islam (auth.), Mohammed N. Islam (eds.)

ISBN-10: 0387215859

ISBN-13: 9780387215853

ISBN-10: 0387406565

ISBN-13: 9780387406565

I take into account vividly the ?rst time that I heard in regards to the ?ber ampli?er. at the moment, after all, it used to be the erbium-doped ?ber ampli?er, the predecessor of the Raman ampli?er that's the topic of this e-book. It was once an early morning in a forgotten 12 months in Murray Hill, New Jersey at one among our Bell Labs per month learn employees conferences. approximately twenty administrators and govt administrators of study agencies clustered round an extended desk within the enforcing govt convention room. Arno Penzias, the vice chairman of analysis, presided on the foot of the desk. every body who participated in these examine employees conferences will lengthy keep in mind their tradition and surroundings. Arno may decide an arbitrary start line someplace round the desk, and the special individual could head to front of the desk to offer a quick speak on “something new” in his or her learn quarter. This ?rst speaker may constantly ?ddle helplessly with the controls embedded within the podium that managed the viewgraph projector, yet finally we might pay attention equipment grinding within the again room as a wide hidden reflect moved into position. we'd all wait quietly, arranging and selecting our personal viewgraphs from the piles that lay at the desk in entrance of each participant.

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Extra info for Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems

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Reference is gain at −18 dBm input power. N. Islam Stage 1 Gain Fiber Stage 2 Gain Fiber Output Input Stage 1 pumps Signal monitoring Stage 2 pumps Feedback Control Midstage access Fig. 23. Schematic diagram of a two-stage amplifier with signal monitoring and closed loop control. 1. Feedback Control of the SLRA To control the performance of the two-stage Raman amplifier, the amplifier unit is equipped with a closed loop control system that can be configured via software. As shown in Fig. 23, the feedback control circuit has as an input signal monitoring at the midstage, and the output controls the pump laser powers in the two stages.

7 dB in transmission performance in the C-band over three spans. The improvement should grow proportionally with the number of spans. Conversely, it can be noted that C-band performance would deteriorate with the addition of L-band signals by about the same amount it would be improved by the addition of identical signals in the S-band. 7. XPM in the S-Band Raman Amplifier Because a small-core DCF is used as the gain fiber in lumped Raman amplifiers, another concern arises about XPM in the gain medium.

6 studies the impact on the C-band from the introduction of the S-band. Third, because dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF) is used as the Raman gain medium because of the high nonlinear coefficient in DCF, another concern arises from nonlinear penalties on the signal channels. 7 quantifies the XPM penalty on the channels passing through the S-band amplifier. In addition, because the Raman amplifier is significantly longer than EDFA’s, another concern arises from new noise sources such as double Rayleigh backscattering (DRBS).

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Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems by Mohammed N. Islam (auth.), Mohammed N. Islam (eds.)

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