By Peter James Smith
This booklet examines the philosophical foundations of the realist view of the development of technological know-how as cumulative. it's a view that has lately been confronted with a couple of robust assaults during which successive medical theories are visible, no longer as extending their scope and honing their motives, yet as incommensurable. there's, it's held, in precept no means of creating that they're concerning the related issues. From the voluminous literature at the subject, Dr Smith has chosen relevantly and incisively and his exposition of the contending arguments is vigourous and transparent, with no undue technicality. As an explication and defence of realism it's going to curiosity all these enthusiastic about this simple query within the philosophy of technological know-how and the philosophy of language.
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Extra info for Realism and the Progress of Science
Thus, we can explain the truth conditions of compound sentences of, say, the form (F G) and (not-F G), given our recognition of their sensitivity to the identity conditions of rabbits, by suggesting that the sentences involve predicates of rabbits. How successful is Evans in replying to Quine's claims to have shown that there is inscrutability in the theory of reference? By drawing attention to certain features of the structure of our language and the way it functions, Evans is able to point to a mass of detail which has to be accounted for when we contemplate constructing a theory of meaning for our language.
The first is that my main purpose in relating Evans's proposals is to be able to draw upon them in the next section when I present my own arguments against inscrutability. The second is that, by replying to Quine's alternative proposals myself in the next section, the need for explaining Evans's replies is obviated. As was noted at the beginning of this section, Evans sees little point in replying to the argument for inscrutability as it arises in translation from a foreign language. Thus he confines his attention to fragments of English, whose sentences have structures and assent conditions familiar to us.
The study of language and the meanings it contains is, for Quine, primarily a study of behaviour, 'language is a social art which we all acquire on the evidence solely of other people's overt behaviour under publicly recognizable circumstances' (196%: 26). Viewed correctly then, 'knowledge, mind, and meaning are part of the same world that they have to do with, and. . are to be studied in the same empirical spirit that animates natural science. ). Consequently there is nothing more to guide us in translating the language of another person than that person's dispositions to overt behaviour.
Realism and the Progress of Science by Peter James Smith