By Niranjan C. Nanda
This booklet introduces readers to the sphere of seismic info interpretation and evaluate, overlaying issues reminiscent of petroleum exploration and excessive answer seismic facts. It is helping geoscientists and engineers who're practitioners during this sector to either comprehend and to prevent the aptitude pitfalls of analyzing and comparing such facts, particularly the over-reliance on refined software program programs and workstations along an absence of take hold of at the undemanding ideas of geology and geophysics. Chapters tricky at the worthy ideas, from themes like seismic wave propagation and rock-fluid parameters to seismic modeling and inversions, explaining the necessity to comprehend geological implications. the adaptation among interpretation of knowledge and its assessment is highlighted and the writer encourages imaginitive, logical and useful program of information.
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Additional resources for Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production: A Practitioner’s Guide
4b). The Fresnel zone may be considered as a lateral requisite, complimentary to the vertical impedance contrast, responsible for causing a reflection event. Similar to thickness of the bed that determines the temporal resolution, the Fresnel zone width can be considered to serve as a yard stick for defining lateral resolution. Seismic Resolution 25 Fig. 5 A small discontinuity in the Fresnel zone, such as a small hole in the reflector, has little effect on seismic reflection due to ‘wave front healing’, a process of diffraction of wave going around the aberration (After Sheriff 1977) Poor to no reflections, at times, seen associated with fault edges, sharp facies changes, small reefal mounds and erosional unconformities may be examples of inadequate imaging linked to Fresnel’s zone width.
Vertical velocity is used for conversion of reflection times to depth and the interval velocity for estimating lithology and other rock properties like porosity and fluid contents. The two velocity functions are interrelated; knowledge of one can lead to calculation of the other. The seismic CDP technique permits the calculation of an apparent overburden velocity from multitrace data processing and is known as the normal move out (NMO) or stack velocity. Stacking velocity is so named, as it is computed mathematically from the normal move out equation which maximizes the effect of summation of traces in a CDP gather.
Strength Polarity (+ve) max. strength one-sided envelope Fig. 8 The seismic attributes measurable on a trace, namely the time period, wavelength, reflection amplitude, reflection strength and polarity. Reflection strength is the maximum amplitude of the envelope of a composite reflection, independent of phase (After Anstey 1977) 29 Time time and velocity, all of which can be measured or estimated. The reflection attributes (Fig. 8) define the shape and arrival time of reflections depending on properties of the rocks.
Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production: A Practitioner’s Guide by Niranjan C. Nanda