By Stella Vosniadou, Andrew Ortony

ISBN-10: 0521362954

ISBN-13: 9780521362955

Similarity and analogy are primary in human cognition. they're the most important for reputation and category, and feature been linked to clinical discovery and creativity. Any enough knowing of similarity and analogy calls for the combination of thought and information from diversified domain names. This interdisciplinary quantity explores present improvement in examine and conception from mental, computational, and academic views, and considers their implications for studying and guide. the celebrated members learn the mental approaches excited by reasoning by way of similarity and analogy, the computational difficulties encountered in simulating analogical processing in challenge fixing, and the stipulations selling the applying of analogical reasoning in daily occasions.

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Example text

If this is right, then it is going to be difficult to reduce categorization to similarity. Allan Collins has come up with a way to explore this relationship further, using the form of the category's density function, and it is worthwhile to report some data that Collins and I have collected (Collins & Rips, in preparation) because they provide evidence that reinforces some of the conclusions from the previous study. To see how Collins's idea works, imagine that a meteorologist is studying daily high temperatures in Chicago, half of which occurred during the month of January and half during July.

In order to be sporting, we can further concede that resemblance theory applies only to categories of natural kinds and artifacts. Clearly, resemblance theory doesn't have a chance with what Barsalou (1985; this volume) calls "goal-derived" categories such as things-totake-with-you-on-a-vacation, since there is no reason to think that bathing suits and toothbrushes belong to this category because of their similarity to each other or to other category members. Indeed, Barsalou (1985) found that, for goal-derived categories, average similarity to other category members was not a very good predictor of an instance's rated goodness of membership within the category.

In other words, facts about the animal's mature state clearly influence the way subjects classify the immature form but have much less effect on its similarity. This contrasts with the results from the Accident condition, where the big difference appeared in rated typicality and similarity. Taken together, these results give us the double dissociation that we were looking for. Resemblance theories have trouble accounting for results from both Essence and Accident conditions; for if similarity and categorization amount to the same thing, then any increase or decrease in one should be accompanied by a like change in the other.

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Similarity and Analogical Reasoning by Stella Vosniadou, Andrew Ortony

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