By Leonty Miroshnichenko
Presents a complete method of the open questions in sun cosmic ray learn and contains constant and specific concerns of conceptual, observational, theoretical, experimental and utilized facets of the sphere. the result of sunlight cosmic ray (SCR) investigations from 1942 to the current are summarized during this ebook. It treats the study questions in a self-contained shape in all of its institutions, from basic astrophysical features to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical purposes. a large number of new facts is integrated, which has been accrued over the past a number of many years of house learn. This moment version comprises quite a few updates and corrections to the textual content, figures and references. the writer has additionally further numerous new sections approximately GLEs and radiation risks. furthermore, an intensive bibliography is supplied, which covers non-partially the most achievements and screw ups within the box. This quantity is geared toward graduate scholars and researchers in sunlight physics and house science.
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Extra resources for Solar Cosmic Rays: Fundamentals and Applications
In condensed form, the most of relevant GLE data are included also in the Catalogues of SPEs of 1955–1996 (Dodson et al. 1975; Akinyan et al. 1983; Bazilevskaya et al. 1986, 1990a; Sladkova 1996; Sladkova et al. 1998). 2 Intensity and Energy Limits 31 supported also by the computerized database for solar cycle 22 (events Nos. 1) compiled by Gentile (1993a, b), Neutron Monitor Data Base (MNDB, e. , Klein et al. 2009), as well as by a new Catalogue of SPEs for the period of 1997– 2009 (Logachev et al.
Differently designed ground MTs make it possible to register SCRs arriving at large angles to the vertical. , 24 2 Observational Features and Databases of Solar Cosmic Rays Fig. /FTP_NM/C/). Figures near the curves correspond to isolines of equal geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for primary GCR or SCR particles (in units of GV) Krymsky et al. 1990; Swinson and Shea 1990; Karpov et al. 1998; Miroshnichenko et al. 2000). Ground-level events often give secondary muon intensity bursts registered with substandard instruments, which are designed in order to solve astrophysical problems and study the nuclear effects of GCRs (Karpov et al.
Position estimated from location of assumed associated active region The above list is given mainly for reference purposes. , Shea and Smart 1993a) helpful for the more deep studies of certain individual events. For example, it is necessary to explain a “double” GLE of January 28, 1967. Space probe measurements evidenced that two high energy particle events occurred (Dodson et al. 1975). Neutron monitor observations initially indicated that both events were recorded as GLEs. However, recent studies of the first increase make the event somewhat questionable.
Solar Cosmic Rays: Fundamentals and Applications by Leonty Miroshnichenko