By J. Pontén (auth.)
A. Definitions of Transformation in vitro while common tissues or organs are explanted to stipulations favoring the expansion of cells as person devices ("cell culture"), the unique mobilephone inhabitants undergoes a wide number of differences. just a minority of the cells will thrive and multiply and inside a slightly brief time period, the complicated composition of the unique explant is changed via a far simplified certainly one of just a couple of recogniz ably various telephone forms. With such a lot organs fibroblast-like cells continue to exist longest and outgrow different kinds. this is often then a good situation for lots of gener ations. This treatise won't speak about even if this simplification and stabilization represents choice of definite pre-existing telephone varieties or a amendment of cells into just a couple of recognizably diversified different types; for a great overview see HARRIS. (1964). desk 1. Terminology hired to explain alterations in vitro form of transformation crucial good points abnormal progress loss of touch inhibition of telephone membrane flow ("ruffled membranes") among juxtaposed cells Unrestrained development poor inhibition of the mobilephone cycle (mitosis) in a crowded tradition limitless progress potential of cells to suffer an unlimited variety of di visions (formation of proven cellphone traces) Cells may perhaps leave from this standard habit in different methods concerning for example mobile morphology, immunology, chromosomes or metabolism. Such adjustments have, occasionally really vaguely, been referred to as "transformations". this is often unprecise and the time period "transformation" will the following be used completely to point disturbances in mobilephone progress on the topic of neoplasia.
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Additional info for Spontaneous and Virus Induced Transformation in Cell Culture
Morphologically identifiable plasmoblasts or plasmo· cytes form only a minority of the various cell types of a lymphoid line. Magnification 22,500 x (DE THE, NILSSON, and PONTEN, in preparation) Lymphoblastoid Transformation of Human Lymphoid Tissue 37 in tissue culture. It should now be possible to study the control of immunoglobulin synthesis under well defined conditions and possibly even the induction of the primary antibody response in vitro (KAMEl and MOORE, 1967). C. Presence of Virus-like Particles in Lymphoid Lines Since the first report of BENYESH-MELNICK, FERNBACH, and LEWIS (1963), interest has centered around the significance of virus-like particles observed in transformed lymphoblasts from the leukemias or lymphomas used as starting material.
KLEIN, CLIFFORD, G. KLEIN, and HAMBERGER, 1967; GERBER, HAMRE, Moy, and ROSENBLUM, 1968) indicate that infection with EBV (or a serologically related agent) is common in many parts of the world. The proportion of positive sera among healthy persons increases with age and at least 80% of persons older than 35 have antibodies indicating the existence of numerous subclinical infections. Until better evidence is available it is quite possible that EBV represents a ubiquitous "passenger" occasionally causing clinically manifest mononucleosis but of unknown etiological significance for leukemia or lymphomas.
CRAWFORD, 1963; MAYOR, JAMISON, and JORDAN, 1963; WINOCOUR, 1963; BLACK, E. CRAWFORD, and L. CRAWFORD, 1964; KOCH, EGGERS, ANDERER, SCHLUMBERGER, and FRANK, 1967). They are indistinguishable icosahedrons containing, according to several early authors, fortytwo morphological units (capsomeres) (WILDY, STOKER, MACPHERSON, and HORNE, 1960; HOWATSON and ALMEIDA, 1960; MAYOR, JAMISON, and JORDAN, 1963; HOWATSON and CRAWFORD, 1963). Fig. 10. Selected "one side" particle images of negatively stained SV 40 particles together with duplicates where the 5-coordinated morphological units are marked X and the 6-coordinated units which determine the " 72nd path" are marked with a black dot.
Spontaneous and Virus Induced Transformation in Cell Culture by J. Pontén (auth.)