By Israel Scheffler

ISBN-10: 0521052300

ISBN-13: 9780521052306

During this very important and broad-ranging booklet, Israel Scheffler explores a number of the ways that the brain services symbolically. This comprises contemplating not just the worlds of the sciences and the humanities, but additionally such actions as spiritual ritual and child's play. The publication deals an built-in remedy of ambiguity and metaphor, analyses of play and formality, and a longer dialogue of the family members among medical image structures and truth. What emerges is an image of the elemental symbol-forming personality of the brain.

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Extra resources for Symbolic Worlds: Art, Science, Language, Ritual

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What, indeed, would be the result of extending his proposal explicitly to tokens? Would it, in particular, follow that no two tokens have the same meaning? This would, we may note, be even a stronger conclusion than the one suggested earlier by the "green centaur" example. For what the latter showed was that there are instances in which replicas differ in meaning even when they have the same extension. The stronger conclusion that no two tokens have the same meaning under any circumstances clearly goes beyond the moral of the green centaurs.

Is this the whole story? Richman notes the following case, which presents us with a new problem. "9 Now imagine any two English "green centaur" tokens x and y. Though replicas, they are not extensionally divergent, and so lack elementary ambiguity. Faced, moreover, with such an unlikely sentence as In my dream I met some experienced zebras and a green centaur, if we cannot decide which interpretation to place upon the "green centaur" token, it is no longer open to us to explain our indecision as we earlier dealt with ambiguity of occurrence.

But "refers" cannot here be taken as "denotes," for, in either case, nothing is denoted. The question, it seems, is rather what Linus-description may have denoted for the author of the fragment in question. Thus, in our finding "Linus" ambiguous, we are indirectly reflecting indecision as to the extension of "Linus-description" in this context. Yet there is a residual problem in the case of replicas, which does not arise for nonreplicas. A "centaur" token differs in meaning from a "unicorn" token since a syntactically distinguishable group of "centaur" compounds diverges extensionally from an45 Ambiguity in language other such group of "unicorn" compounds.

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Symbolic Worlds: Art, Science, Language, Ritual by Israel Scheffler


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