By Michael Tye
What's it like 'on the interior' for nonhuman animals? Do they believe something? most folk fortunately settle for that canine, for instance, proportion many reports and emotions with us. yet what approximately easier creatures? Fish? Honeybees? Crabs? Turning to the factitious realm, what approximately robots? This paintings provides solutions to those questions.
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Extra resources for Tense bees and shell-shocked crabs : are animals conscious?
Secondly, either the higher-order thought is conscious or it isn’t. If it isn’t, then how can its presence make us conscious of the experience? For, as already noted, consciousness of a thing requires a conscious state about that thing. Relatedly, if the thought is unconscious, and the experience, in and of itself, is also unconscious, it is a mystery how putting together two unconscious mental states can generate a mental state that is conscious, namely, a conscious experience. On the other hand, if the higher-order thought is conscious, what makes it conscious?
These last two points need some elaboration. Recall the earlier definition in chapter 1 of a triangle: a triangle is a closed, three-sided figure. We can see this definition as providing an analysis of the concept or idea of a triangle, one that equips us to decide very easily whether given figures are triangles or not. Descartes may be seen as offering an equally objective definition of what it is for a being to be capable of thought: a being is capable of thought if and only if it is capable of using language.
This brings us to a third objection that might be raised to the Simple View, namely, that it cannot adequately account for the phenomenon of higher-order consciousness. Each of us is subject to a wide range of mental states, and we can often know what mental state we are undergoing by introspection. When we do so, we are conscious of the mental state we introspect, but there is no experience involved in this conscious act, or at least there need not be. So consciousness can occur without experience, and the Simple View is mistaken.
Tense bees and shell-shocked crabs : are animals conscious? by Michael Tye