By Grant D. Jones

ISBN-10: 0804735220

ISBN-13: 9780804735223

On March thirteen, 1697, Spanish troops from Yucat?n attacked and occupied Nojpeten, the capital of the Maya humans referred to as Itzas, the population of the final unconquered local New international state. This political and formality center—located on a small island in a lake within the tropical forests of northern Guatemala—was densely lined with temples, royal palaces, and thatched homes, and its trap represented a decisive second within the ultimate bankruptcy of the Spanish conquest of the Mayas. The catch of Nojpeten climaxed greater than years of education via the Spaniards, after efforts by way of the army forces and Franciscan missionaries to barter a calm hand over with the Itzas have been rejected through the Itza ruling council and its ruler Ajaw Kan Ek’. The conquest, faraway from being ultimate, initiated years of persevered fight among Yucatecan and Guatemalan Spaniards and local Maya teams for keep an eye on over the encompassing forests. regardless of protracted resistance from the local population, millions of them have been pressured to maneuver into project cities, even though in 1704 the Mayas staged an abortive and bloody uprising that threatened to recapture Nojpeten from the Spaniards. the 1st whole account of the conquest of the Itzas to seem considering 1701, this ebook information the layers of political intrigue and motion that characterised each element of the conquest and its aftermath. the writer severely reexamines the wide documentation left by means of the Spaniards, featuring a lot new info on Maya political and social association and Spanish army and diplomatic procedure. this isn't just one of the main distinctive reviews of any Spanish conquest within the Americas but additionally some of the most complete reconstructions of an self sustaining Maya state within the heritage of Maya stories. In providing the tale of the Itzas, the writer additionally finds a lot approximately neighboring lowland Maya teams with whom the Itzas interacted, usually violently.

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Trophy heads and sacrificial scenes indicate that prowess in war was also important to a ruler’s authority. The stela cult of the Late Preclassic Period was the beginning of what would become the dynastic ruler cult of the Classic Period. WRITING AND LONG COUNT CALENDAR Hieroglyphic writing and Long Count dating appeared with the stela cult and were incorporated into the bas-relief sculptures.

Domesticated maize was introduced into the diet, and within the next thousand years, maize was being cultivated in most regions of Mesoamerica, including much of the Maya area. The cultivation of maize— the New World equivalent to rice and wheat—held the key to the development of more complex Mesoamerican society. Maize could be harvested and stored in such quantity that it provided sustenance year-round in both the highlands and lowlands. As maize agriculture encouraged more peoples to settle in permanent villages, it also sustained larger populations and created food surpluses.

Found, such as the nearly 4-meter- (13-foot-) high platform on a ceremonial plaza at Altar de Sacrificios. At sites such as Nakbé and Uaxactún, archaeologists have discovered early but less easily detected constructions of flat stones, layered without mortar and with roughly plastered floors. The number of known sites will probably increase as archaeologists intensify their search for these formative structures. Burials have been found as well. At Seibal, a simple farming village in the Guatemalan Petén, a La Venta–style cache of jade and pottery, laid out in a cruciform arrangement, was discovered.

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The Conquest of the Last Maya Kingdom by Grant D. Jones

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