By Karen Elizabeth Gordon
Playful and functional, this is often the fashion booklet you can't wait to exploit, a advisor that addresses vintage questions of English utilization with wit and the blackest of humor. Black-and-white illustrations all through.
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Extra info for The Deluxe Transitive Vampire: The Ultimate Handbook of Grammar for the Innocent, the Eager, and the Doomed
If at least some L2 speakers can achieve nativelike knowledge of the L2 grammar, then we must conclude that multilingualism itself is not a barrier to nativelikeness. 4b) has been that it is uninteresting at best, and misguided at worst. For example, White (1998) concludes a section on this topic by stating that “the issue [. ] is whether the IL grammar is a ‘possible’ grammar, not whether it is equivalent to the L2 grammar” (p. 10 Bley-Vroman (1983) labeled the tendency of much SLA research to use the TL/NS as the norm against which to measure L2 grammars the comparative fallacy.
5) in other narrowly defined SLA settings. One sensible question to ask at this point is whether the three key assumptions I have made are all necessary to account for SLA outcomes. I shall consider this by evaluating the plausibility of building a theory of SLA based on only two of these assumptions at a time. 1. I would like to argue that theories A-C would not be satisfactory theories of SLA. Theory A can be discarded on the basis of numerous empirical studies which have shown that L2 grammars are constrained by UG, even when they are not nativelike (see the references cited in this connection at the beginning of this section; also see the discussion of the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis and similar proposals in Chapter 3).
She contrasts these subjects’ performance with that of the L1 English subjects in the same study, who are claimed to have optional representations for the same L2 syntactic phenomenon. A question that arises in connection with the definition of nativelikeness (or lack thereof) is how it can be measured. One proxy that can be used is degree of variability. A caveat is in place here, though. Firstly, one should bear in mind any potentially masking effects of systematic divergence. Secondly, there may be factors other than those being investigated contributing to the variability.
The Deluxe Transitive Vampire: The Ultimate Handbook of Grammar for the Innocent, the Eager, and the Doomed by Karen Elizabeth Gordon