By Michael Lewis
Local audio system don't make Mistakes..
We have already remarked that the duty of the linguist is to explain the language because it is used.
It is critical to not discard examples of genuine use, nor say that the speaker "has made a mistake".
Teachers are typically ready to simply accept this, supplying they're given the escape
of announcing that definite expressions are "not grammatically accurate".
No such break out is possible.
The inspiration of "not grammatically accurate" is predicated on a basic misunderstanding.
It assumes that grammar is prescriptive -- that it dictates how the language may still behave.
It is asking on the complete challenge the other way up. it isn't the case that the guideline exist first,
and the language needs to healthy it. in truth the language exist first, and the grammar needs to describe it.
With this in brain something which a local speaker produces will be tested, and described.
Taking the other perspective, restricts language unnecessarily.
Can you entire the next instance naturally?
Oh, glance. there's anyone hiking out of the window of that construction contrary -- Oh ... fallen.
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Additional info for The English Verb: An Exploration of Structure and Meaning
While the Adjunct Projection Principle accounts for sentential adverbs and manner adverbs, it does not – at least not in a straightforward way – account for subject-oriented adverbs, as in (17). 5 A further problem relates to the limited range of application of the Adjunct Projection Principle: it only applies to adverbs "whose lexical meaning makes it clear what they can modify" (cf. Sportiche 1988:430). e. sentence adverbs are not ordered with respect to NP, Infl and VP, and VP-adverbs are unordered with respect to THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRATION AND LICENSING OF ADVERBS 23 V and its sisters (provided the Adjacency Condition on Case Assignment is respected), as shown in (19a) and (19b), respectively ((18) & (19) adapted from Zubizarreta 1982:38, 40): (18) In the configurations: [γ ...
Quantifier adverbs […] assign quantificational value to a variable, typically aspectual, negative, quantificational, and focalizing adverbs. 39 He further proposes incorporating the qualifier vs. quantifier distinction into the definition of Relativized Minimality, as originally proposed by Rizzi (1990), by interpreting 'typical A'-Spec' in clause (i) as either qualificational or quantificational: (83) Relativized Minimality (Rizzi 1990:7) X antecedent-governs Y only if there is no Z such that (i) Z is a typical A'-Spec potential antecedent-governor for Y (ii) Z c-commands Y and does not c-command X.
69) a. [IP [D he] [I' [I would] [VP [Adv carefully] [VP open the door]]]] b. [IP [D he] [I' [I had] [VP [Adv already] [VP refrained from smoking…]]]] Notice that in the configuration in (69) neither the [AGR]-feature, which would license carefully as a subject-oriented adverb, nor the [EVENT]-feature, which would license already as an event-related adverb, are accessible. 25 36 ADVERB LICENSING AND CLAUSE STRUCTURE IN ENGLISH Similarly, given that speaker-oriented adverbs, such as luckily and honestly in (70), are licensed by the head-feature [ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE] in C, as argued by Travis (1988:290), strings as in (71), where a speaker-oriented adverb follows the subject in specIP or the finite auxiliary verb in I, are unaccounted for since neither left- nor right-adjunction to CP (unless followed by other syntactic processes) would yield the strings under consideration.
The English Verb: An Exploration of Structure and Meaning by Michael Lewis