By Ma'mar ibn Rashid

ISBN-10: 081473829X

ISBN-13: 9780814738290

The Expeditions is among the oldest biographies of the Prophet Muhammad to outlive into the fashionable period. Its fundamental writer, Ma'mar ibn Rashid (714-770 AD/96-153 AH), used to be a well-known student from Basra in southern Iraq who used to be respected for his studying in prophetic traditions, Islamic legislations, and the translation of the Qur'an. This interesting foundational seminal paintings includes tales passed down by means of Ma?mar to his such a lot well known student, 'Abd al-Razzaq of San'a', touching on Muhammad’s youth and prophetic occupation in addition to the adventures and tribulations of his earliest fans in the course of their conquest of the close to East. Edited from a sole surviving manuscript, the Arabic textual content deals various superior readings over these of earlier variants, together with distinct notes at the text’s transmission and editions as present in later works. This new translation, which renders the unique into readable, glossy English for the 1st time, is observed via a number of annotations elucidating the cultural, spiritual and old contexts of the occasions and participants defined inside of its pages. The Expeditions represents a big testimony to the earliest Muslims’ reminiscence of the lives of Muhammad and his partners, and is an essential textual content for gaining perception into the ancient biography of either the Prophet and the increase of the Islamic empire.

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29 Placing the three base letters on the pattern ‫ﻞ‬‫ ﻓﹶﺎﻋ‬produces the masculine form of the ‫) ﻑ‬, ‘ain ( ‫) ﻉ‬, and lām ( ‫ ) ﻝ‬positions in this pattern with ‫ﺩ‬-‫ﺏ‬-‫( ﻉ‬to worship) creates ‫ﺎﺑﹺﺪ‬‫( ﻋ‬a male active participle. 1]. PRINCIPLE THREE The feminine form of the active participle is constructed by placing the base letters on the pattern of ‫ﺓ‬‫ﺎﹺﺑﺪ‬‫( ﻋ‬a female who worships). 29 ‫ﻋﻠﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ‬. Thus, ‫ﺩ‬-‫ﺏ‬-‫( ﻉ‬to worship) becomes All Arabic nouns, both living and non-living, are classified as either masculine or feminine.

Verily they (D/M) must not be done! Verily they (D/M) must not do! They (D/M) must not be done! They (D/M) must not do! ‫ﻌﹸﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﹸ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻌﹸﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻌﹸﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ Verily they (P/M) must not be done! Verily they (P/M) must not do! They (P/M) must not be done! They (P/M) must not do! ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻌﹶﻠ‬ ‫ ﹾﻔ‬‫ﹶﻻ ﺗ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻌﹶﻠ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ‬ Verily she/it (S/F) must not be done!

When placed before the present tense verb, they act to alter its meaning. Refer to higher-level books of Arabic grammar for a discussion of how each of these particles changes the meaning of a verb. 21 22 This particle is called, “ lām al-amr ” (the lām of command). This particle is called, “ lām al-nahy ” (the lām of prohibition). It differs in meaning from the ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ used to negate the present tense verb, which is called “ lām al-nafy ” (the lām of negation). 38 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL ARABIC principle five).

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The Expeditions: An Early Biography of Muhammad (Library of Arabic Literature) by Ma'mar ibn Rashid

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