By Brian F. Atwater
The surface global scarcely knew of north-western North the USA within the 12 months 1700. The Pacific coast, from south-central Alaska to Oregon's Cape Blanco, used to be uncharted until eventually the Spanish and English explorations of the 1770s. but, while tectonic plates unexpectedly shifted there in 1700, a teach of ocean waves - a tsunami - sped around the Pacific Ocean. whilst the waves got here ashore in Japan, they flooded fields and washed away homes. Samurai, retailers, and villagers recorded the mysterious occasion, yet they saw no typhoon and felt no dad or mum earthquake. In Japan, this tsunami used to be an orphan. "The Orphan Tsunami of 1700" tells this transpacific detective tale through featuring its basic assets, eastern records and North American sediments and tree earrings. They inform of a disaster, a century sooner than Lewis and Clark's excursion, that now publications arrangements for destiny earthquakes and tsunamis within the North Pacific. A wealthy array of picture element and narrative explains the construction, motion, and lasting results of earthquakes and tsunamis.
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Additional resources for The Orphan Tsunami of 1700: Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America
39). The account reappears with transliteration and translation on the pages identified in italics below the document title. Each title is enclosed by quotation marks (『 』 in Japanese). ” To make such titles unique we add, outside quotation marks, the name of the family (-ke) or daimyo domain (-han) that produced or preserved the document. JAPAN Kuwagasaki Tsugaruishi Ötsuchi Nakaminato Edo Miho N Tanabe 500 km 34 THE ORPHAN TSUNAMI OF 1700 TANABE 田辺 “Tanabe-machi daichö” 『田辺町 大帳』 p. 86 TSUGARUISHI KUWAGASAKI 津軽石 鍬ヶ崎 Moriai-ke “Nikki kakitome chö” Morioka-han “Zassho” 盛合家 『日記書留帳』 盛岡藩 『雑書』 p.
In height the 1611 waves rivaled those of Japan’s most disastrous tsunami, which caused 22,000 fatalities in northeast Honshu in 1896. 142° Pacific Ocean Tsugaru N 40° TSUNAMI HEIGHT, IN METERS Hachinohe 20 40 MORIOKA-HAN Tsugaruishi 100 0 Morioka km Miyako Ötsuchi 1611 1896 0 SENDAI-HAN Sendai Detail, left Edo Sumpu 38° Söma (p. 69, col. 1) 500 km Hatori (1995) compiled the heights and 1611 deaths; Yamashita (1997, p. 113), deaths from 1896. For a printed “Sumpuki” see Anonymous (1995). 津波. Detail from 1687 map on page 26.
2, monodomo—Commoners. 2, yamayama—More than one hill (yama). Second yama denoted by “repeat” symbol, 6, nin—Counter for people. The orphan tsunami—Kuwagasaki 39 Words for waves「津波」を表すことば In each primary account, the orphan tsunami has a different alias. SUDDEN SLIP on a submarine fault initiates a typical tsunami while also setting off an earthquake (cartoon, opposite; see also p. 10, 99). Feeling no precursory earthquake (p. 54), several Japanese writers called the 1700 tsunami a high tide. Only the writer of the Kuwagasaki account uses 津波 tsunami without questioning the term.
The Orphan Tsunami of 1700: Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America by Brian F. Atwater