By Igorʹ Mikhaĭlovich Dʹi︠a︡konov
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Additional info for The paths of history
With the advent of copper arms the quarrels escalated into war. Hence a powerful defence became a necessity; fortified towns emerged which were the centres of nomes – the minimal administrative and state units. Using aerial photography and a mass study of pottery finds, R. M. Adams and N. J. Nissen were able to show that, in the case of Mesopotamia and the lower Diyalah valley during the fourth and early third millennium bc, very small inhabited areas on the plain gradually disappeared, and the population densely behind the city walls increased.
Civix ‘citizen’, civilis ‘civil, pertaining to city’, civitas ‘civil community, city’. The Early Antiquity is an epoch which distinguished between ‘citizens’ and ‘non-citizens’ or, according to Aristotle, ‘freemen’ and ‘slaves by nature’. Third Phase (Early Antiquity) 23 The first class society (the Third Phase, or Early Antiquity) did not develop uniformly; it has different paths of development which are mostly determined by ecology. In Western Asia, where it arose earlier that elsewhere, we can establish the following main paths.
Actually, this was the situation during seven historical Phases known to us; and if, in the Eighth Phase, women begin to acquire a position in society nearly equal to that of men – in socially necessary labour, in science and in politics – it is because this new situation is one of the diagnostic features of the Eighth Phase, and is non-characteristic for the rest of human history. Second Phase (Primitive Communal) 17 (c) they are not dogmatic; (d) they have no connection with ethic which develops independently in men’s practical life as its organising principle.
The paths of history by Igorʹ Mikhaĭlovich Dʹi︠a︡konov